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Grant Medical College and Sir Jamshedjee Jeejebhoy Group of Hospitals

The Grant Medical College, Mumbai is a medical school affiliated to the Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik. It is one of the premier medical institutions in India and is one of the oldest institution teaching Western medicine in Asia.

The Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy Group of Hospitals includes the J. J. Hospital, St George Hospital, Gokuldas Tejpal Hospital, and Cama and Albess Hospital. All these hospitals are in south Mumbai. At present, the college accepts 200 students per year for the undergraduate course and has more seats for postgraduate courses.

History

Establishment of Grant Medical College

The Bombay Presidency became part of the British possessions in India in 1818. In Western India there was a need for well-trained doctors as well as a general hospital for the natives. Under the guidance of Mountstuart Elphinstone attempts were made to offer Indians an opportunity to learn and practice Medicine along western lines. In 1826, a medical school was started with surgeon John McLennan as the superintendent of the native medical school around Azad Maidan in southern Bombay. However, this school failed after six years. Around 1840 only two medical schools existed in India, one at Calcutta and another at Madras.

In 1834 Sir Robert Grant was appointed the Governor of Bombay. He directed his attention to the expediency of establishing a systematic institution in the city for imparting medical knowledge to the natives, which would be more complete, comprehensive and better planned than the previously abolished medical school. He instituted a detailed inquiry into the ways and means by which Indians could have better medical care and education. As he struggled and strove to push through his ambition for a wisely planned medical college in Bombay, he met strong opposition. To quell the opposition Grant envisaged the formation of the first medical society in India, The Medical and Physical Society of Bombay. It was a society that would bring together the medical officers of the Bombay Presidency and encourage a spirit of scientific enquiry. It was due to painstaking efforts of Dr. Charles Morehead (the then surgeon) to the governor that this society came into existence in November 1835.

Dr. Moorehead and other members studied all the documents pertaining to the abolished medical school. They also drew up and circulated a questionnaire aimed at collecting information on the current medical practice amongst the natives. It was also intended to help educate natives in European medicine. In July, 1837, the Society reported that "the conclusion to which we have been led by this course of enquiry is that the establishment of a medical School for the education of the natives of the presidency in Medical Science, to the extent of qualifying natives to become useful and safe practitioners of medicine."

Based on this Grant prepared his famous minute of March 1838 in which the subject of Medical education of natives of this presidency was fully discussed in detail. It was sent to Sir Auckland's government in Calcutta.

Luckily enough for the cause of medical education and care, in March, 1838, Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy offered a donation of Rs. 1 lac for building a new general hospital with natives. Sir Robert Grant took note of this in his minute, adding that the hospital would facilitate medical instruction.

The Government of India, as conveyed in its letter dated 18th July 1838, happily endorsed the proposal for a medical college. However, 9 days prior to the arrival of this wonderful news, Sir Robert Grant succumbed to an attack of cerebral apoplexy while vacationing in Dapori, near Poona.

A historic public meeting was held in town hall by citizens of Bombay to mourn his death. The famous Sanskrit scholar Jagannath Shankarsheth proposed that it would be a fitting tribute that the medical college so ably planned and so zealously advocated by him should be established and that it should bear his name. The government accepted this proposal. The foundation stone of the building was laid on the 30th day of March, 1843, and the building was completed in October, 1845.

Simultaneously with the plans and foundation of the college, it was also decided, with the aid of a munificent donation offered by Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy, to substitute the previously existing native general hospital in the city, by creating a "School of Practice" (now known as the Sir J.J. Hospital) near the hospital and in conjunction with it. The professors of the medical college were the medical officers of the hospital. The foundation stone was laid on January 3, 1843 and the School of Practice was opened for reception of the sick from May 15, 1845.

In 1845, admittance to the college was accorded without exception for caste or creed to candidates between the ages of 16 and 20 who were of respectable connection and general intelligence; who in addition to a grammatical knowledge of their vernacular language and of arithmetic including Rules of Proportion, possessed a thorough knowledge of English so as to be able to read and write with accuracy, fluency and facility. Each candidate was required to present a certificate of good conduct from the headmaster of the school in which he had studied and also one expressly stating that he was possessed of the necessary information and capable of undergoing the examination proposed.

The entrance examination was conducted by the superintendent and the professors of the college. The books selected for testing the knowledge of English were Milton's "Paradise Lost", "Robertson's Histories", or a similar classical standard.

The first group of students admitted to the Grant Medical College, Bombay, on November 1,1845 were:

Free: Bhau Daji Parsekar, Monoel A.D. Carvalho, Sebestian A.D. Carvalho Stipendary: Atmaram Pandurang, Paul Francis Gomes, Fardemjee Jamshetji, Ananta Chandroba Dkule, J.C. Lisoba, Manoel Antonio D'Abrew.

The first professors of Grant Medical College were Charles Morehead, M.D., FRCS, Professor of "The Institute of Practice of Medicine", Dr. John Peet, M.D., FRCS, Professor of Anatomy and Surgery and Dr. Herbert John Giraud, M.D., Professor of Chemistry and Materia Medica.

In 1849 two more teachers joined the college. Dr. W. C. Colls taught Medical Jurispudence and Dr. R. D. Peele taught Midwifery.

Attendance was not quite satisfactory during the first year. In following years, however, it became so good that students declined to take advantage of holidays but preferred to attend classes.

The Bombay University was founded in 1857. In 1860, Grant Medical College became one of the four colleges recognized by it for teaching courses leading to degrees (others being Elphinstone College, Deccan College and Government Law College, Mumbai). With its affiliation to the University, GMC's entrance exams were abolished. Matriculation in Bombay University was made a necessary qualification for admission to the Medical College. The G.G.M.C. degree was replaced by L.M. (Licentiate of Medicine) which later gave way to L.M.&S. (Licentiate of Medicine and Surgery) and finally to M.B.B.S. (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery).

Gradual Expansion of Sir. J.J.Hospital

Immediately after the First World War, there was a great rush of students to the college. To continue to provide effective instruction training at the bedside of patients, the Gokuldas Tejpal Hospital was utilized as a teaching center in the subjects of Medicine and Surgery in 1924. This arrangement has since been continued to date.

Gradually the facilities at the Sir J.J. Group of Hospitals were also increased. The Sir Leslie Wilson Hospital Fund played an important part. The Yellappa Balaram pavilion (104 beds), Sir David Sassoon Hospital (97 beds and O.T.), Byramjee Jejeebhoy Hospital for Children (100 beds) were constructed and the Sir C.J. Ophthalmic Hospital was reconstructed (adding 73 beds).

The students had to stay in chawls opposite the compound until 1911 when old hostel was built. In 1938, the R.M. Bhatt hostel was built thanks to the efforts of Mr. C.S.Patel and Col. Bhatia- one of the most respected and loved teacher of his time.

The Pathology Department was established in 1880, the first autopsy conducted in 1882. In 1896, Sir V.M. Haffkine worked on the preparation of plague vaccine in the F.D. Petit Laboratory of G.M.C. (which is today occupied by Pharmacology Department).

Robert Koch's work on Vibrio cholerae was done in two rooms of the old animal house behind coroner's court. Van Duke Carter, after whom the O.P.D. Laboratory of Sir J.J.H. is named discovered in pathology department the Spirochaetes of Relapsing Fever in Blood smears in 1907. It was here that Christopher and Caval worked on Malaria and Dr. Raghavendra Rao worked in on Tropical Diseases, Leprosy, Plague & Leishmaniasis.

In 1929, the Department was shifted to the new building of Pathology School thanks to the munificence of the Tatas. Dr. V.R. Khanolkar the Doyen of Pathology in our Country initiated work on cancer epidemiology. He was the founder member and the first president of the Indian Association of Pathologists in 1949. Dr. P.V. Gharpure started the Pathology Museum and "The Association of Teaching Pathologists" in Bombay.

The first M.D. of Bombay University was Dr. Anna Moreshwar Kunte in 1876. Another GMCite Dr. K.N. Bahadurji was the first Indian to obtain M.D. from London and who died of plague in 1896 while in charge of the Passes Plaque Hospital. In his memory the "Student Sick Ward" was built. This was torn down and replaced in 1908 to make room for the William Moore Operation Theatre.

Initially in 1845, J.J.Hospital had only a casualty and an Out Patient Department with a dispensary behind it. Soon in 1951, the Obstetric institution was built thanks to Sir J.J.'s donations. In 1892, the Obstetric ward became the Parsee ward.

In 1866, the Ophthalmic Hospital was erected by the donation given by Sir Cowasjee Jehangirjee. In 1930 it was remodeled by Sir J. Duggan in a three-storeyed building remodeled it for which Sir Cowasjee Jehangir, Third Baronet, donated a large sum. This was later reformed as the O.P.D. In this small placealso existed the medical Dept., Minor Surgery, E.N.T. Dept., and Dental chair. From 1907-1928 this was converted into biology and bacteriology laboratories.

The General Medical Council found that the facilities for teaching midwifery were deficient in G.M.C. To overcome this problem, the Bai Motlibai and Cama Albless Hospital were affiliated to G.M.C. by 1923.

Non-Cooperation Movement

During the early 1900s all prestigious professional posts were held by British I.M.S. officers, while Indians were given only non-clinical appointments. In 1921, the Non-Cooperation movement appealed to GMCites to boycott the British government by leaving G.M.C. Students, Professors and Practitioners began shifting to Topiwala National Medical College near Victoria Gardens. Masses were held between 6-8 p.m. for medical students by famous medical practitioners, all GMCites. To prove that Indians themselves could build and maintain medical institutions without British support, the K.E.M. Hospital and Seth G.S.Medical College where the entire staff was Indian were founded in 1926.

Post-Independence Reconstructions

The greatest change to G.M.C. & J.J.H. came in 1958 when the old J.J. building was torn down and replaced by a 7 storeyed hospital building. The O.P.D. was extended to contain Investigation Laboratories.

Today it is spread over 44 acres (178,000 m²) in Byculla with 14 gates, a long jump from the two-room teaching hospital in an area of .

Graduates from this institution in USA- Sandeep Ghuge- Internal Medicine NYC, Soniya Pawar- Pediatrics NYC, Lakshmi Naik- Neurology Cornell NYC, Mrinal Patnaik- Internal Medicine Minnesota, Sachin Nunnewar- Pediatrics in NYC, Smita Dandekar- Pediatrics NYC, Pallavi Ghuge- Alabama, Sonal Rachmale- NYC, Abhijit Naik-Internal Medicine NYC

Department & Faculties

  • DEAN : Dr. P. H. Shingare
  • Opthama : Dr. Tatyarao Lahane
  • Anaesthesia - [proff & head]- Dr G.S sarate

              [proff & ass proff] -Dr upasani,Dr kondwilkar,Dr bharat shah,Dr vaishali ,Dr usha
              [lecturers & astt lect] - Dr Sachin Nagar,Dr kundan , Dr shekhar, Dr sushil, Dr sachin nachane,

  • Medicine - Head: Dr.Mhasde, PROF. ALAKA DESHPANDE, Dr.Joglekar, Dr.Vidya Nagar, Dr.Priya Deshpande, Dr.N.I.Juvale
  • Anatomy - Dr.S.G.Gangane
  • Biochemistry - Head: Dr.V.W Patil.
  • C.V.T.S. Head of cardiac surgery - Dr S.A.Potwar,Dr Rachmale G.N.Dr Bhosle K.N. [prof of cardiac surgery, Dr Ashish.B ,Dr Mahesh.C [lecturer],Dr Mishra Vaibhav.G[chief resident]
  • Chest Dieases & Tuberculosis - Head: Dr.Ramraje
  • Dentistry
  • Dermatology - Head: Dr.D.G.Saple, Dr.Sudhir Medhekar, Dr.Mahendra Kura, Dr.Amar
  • E.N.T. - Head: Dr.M.V.Jagade
  • Forensic Medicine - Head: Dr. Nanandkar S.D. Dr.Chikhalkar, Dr.G.S.Chavan,Dr.Meshram
  • Microbiology - Head: Dr.Renu Bharadwaj, Dr.Ameeta Joshi
  • Pathology - Head: Dr.A.Valand, Dr. Lanjewar, Dr.S.R.Raghuwanshi, Dr.G.F.D'Costa, Dr.P.M.Roplekar, Dr.M.H.Hastak, Dr.R.V.Taksande, Dr.S.M.Sisodiya, Dr.B.N.Hiwale, Dr.A.S.Vyas, Dr.Sanjay Bijwe, Dr.K.Deshpande, Dr.S.V.Agale, Dr.S.R.Ramraje, Dr.S.Nazmi.
  • Surgery - Head: Dr.B.M.Sabnis,Dr M J Algotar, Dr.Mukund Tayade, Dr.Girish Bakhshi, Dr.Aftab Shaikh, Dr.Rajesh Yadav,Dr Ashok Borisa,
  • Paediatric Surgery Dr. Nitinkumar Dhende
  • Pharmacology - Head: Dr.S.B.Patel, Dr.S.D.Harshe, Dr.A.A.Karbhari, Dr.U.V.Mujumdar, Dr.M.M.Jain, Dr.R.S.Gambre, Dr.Manerikar

Dr.Deepak Langade, Dr.Avinash Turankar, Dr.Milind Pardesi, Dr.Rohini Jagtap,

  • Obs & Gyn: Head Dr R G Daver (Prof & HOD),Dr. D.D.Dongaonkar (Prof)

-DR Varsha Hishikar (Asso Prof), DR K.M.Algotar (Asso Prof),Dr.ASHOK ANAND(Asso Prof), Dr. S.S.Khadilkar(Asso Prof), Dr. Shalini Mahana (Asso Prof), Dr. Manisha Gandhewar (Asso Prof), Dr Swati Chaudhari (Asso Prof) -Dr Disha Andhiwal (Lecturer), Dr Chitwan Dube (Lecturer), Dr Sanket Pisat (Lecturer), Dr Sachin N (Lecturer), Dr Gayatri S (Lecturer) -Dr SP Tilwani (Hon Prof),Dr MS Potwar (Hon. Prof), Dr KP Tilwani (Hon Asst. Prof)

  • Physiology - Head: Dr.R.S.Inamdar, Dr.Sachin Mulkutkar, Dr.Rameshwar Daokar, Dr.Chandan Dey
  • P.S.M. - Head: Dr.S.V.Akarte, Dr.Prakash Sawant, Dr.Ranjit Mankeshwar, Dr.Lalit Sankhe
  • Psychiatry - Dr.Kale, Dr.Vanshree Patil
  • Nephrology
  • Neurology
  • Neurosurgery - Head: Dr.Deepak Palande, Dr Vernon Velho, Dr Rahul Mally, Dr Pranav Ghodgaonkar
  • Orthopaedics - Head: Dr.Ajay Chandanwale
  • Radio - Diagnosis: Dr.Sorate, Dr.Patil, Dr.Sharad Ghatge
  • Urology - Dr. Percy Jal Chibber

The Research Society

The Research Society started functioning in 1965 in the Skin & Serology Dept. building on the 2nd floor with an office & research library and a proposed space for a research laboratory.

The Research Society has the following aims & objectives:

1. To promote & encourage research & medical science in various departments of GMC & J.J.H. 2. Sponsor all such activities conducted to promotion of medical science & all such measures to fulfill objectives.

The Founder members were:- Dr. J. G. Parekh, Dr. P. M. Udani, Dr. B. J. Vakil, Dr. S. J. Shah, Dr. V. C. Talwalkar, Dr. J.C. Joshipura & Dr. B. B. Gaitonde.

Currently, the Research Society in its 40th year is still making major contributions in field of medical research by sponsoring various research projects undertaken by post-graduate students under the guidance of senior doctors. Many of these research projects are presently ongoing. It awards Post Graduate Students for the Best Research paper and also for the best thesis. It sponsors various scientific conferences, medical workshops and a number of symposia. It also promotes deserving MBBS undergraduate students by awarding them with the Dr. S. R. Moolgaonkar scholarship. j

The GMC Banned

Grant Medical College has a college band called The GMC Banned

External links

         Members of the association have forums , email ids and chatrooms.

See also

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