An obelisk (from Greek ὀβελίσκος - obeliskos, diminutive of ὀβελός - obelos, "spit, nail, pointed pillar) (المسلة Al-Masalla in Arabic) is a tall, narrow, four-sided, tapering monument which ends in a pyramidal top. Ancient obelisks were made of a single piece of stone (a monolith); however, most modern obelisks are made of individual stones, and can even have interior spaces. The original form is Egyptian and all subsequent versions are derived from the original Egyptian pattern.
The term stele (plural: stelae) is generally used for other monumental standing inscribed sculpted stones.
Because of the Enlightenment-era association of Egypt with mortuary arts, (and generally with great antiquity), obelisks became associated with timelessness and memorialization.
There are many smaller obelisks or similar forms to be found in European and American cemeteries, and may be from a few meters in height.
Obelisks were prominent in the architecture of the ancient Egyptians, who placed them in pairs at the entrance of temples. The word "obelisk" is of Greek rather than Egyptian origin because Herodotus, the Greek traveler, was the first to describe the objects. Twenty-nine ancient Egyptian obelisks are known to have survived, plus the "Unfinished Obelisk" found partly hewn from its quarry at Aswan. These obelisks are now dispersed around the world, and only nine remain in Egypt.
The earliest temple obelisk still in its original position is the 20.7 m / 68 ft high 120 tons red granite Obelisk of Senusret I of the XIIth Dynasty at Al-Matariyyah part of Heliopolis.
The obelisk symbolized the sun god Amon Re, and during the brief religious reformation of Akhenaten was said to be a petrified ray of the Aten, the sundisk. It was also thought that the god existed within the structure.
It is hypothesized by New York University Egyptologist Patricia Blackwell Gary and Astronomy senior editor Richard Talcott that the shapes of the ancient Egyptian pyramid and obelisk were derived from natural phenomena associated with the sun (the sun-god Ra being the Egyptians' greatest deity). The pyramid and obelisk would have been inspired by previously overlooked astronomical phenomena connected with sunrise and sunset: the zodiacal light and sun pillars respectively.
The Ancient Romans were strongly influenced by the obelisk form, to the extent that there are now more than twice as many obelisks standing in Rome as remain in Egypt. All fell after the Roman period except for the Vatican obelisk and were re-erected in different locations.
The tallest Egyptian obelisk graces the square in front of the Lateran Basilica in Rome. this one is 105.6 feet tall and weighs 455 tons
Not all the Egyptian obelisks re-erected in the Roman Empire were set up at Rome. Herod the Great imitated his Roman patrons and set up a red granite Egyptian obelisk in the hippodrome of his grand new city Caesarea in northern Judea. This one is about 40 feet tall and weighs about 100 tons. It was discovered by archaeologists and has been re-erected at its former site.
In Constantinople, the Eastern Emperor Theodosius shipped an obelisk in AD 390 and had it set up in his hippodrome, where it has weathered Crusaders and Seljuks and stands in the Hippodrome square in modern Istanbul. This one originally stood 95 feet tall weighing 380 tons its lower half reputedly also once stood in Istanbul but is now lost. It now stands 65 feet tall probably not much if any more than 200 tons.
Rome is the obelisk capital of the world. The most prominent is the 25.5 m / 83.6 ft high 331 tons obelisk at Saint Peter's Square in Rome. The obelisk had stood since AD 37 on its site on the wall of the Circus of Nero, flanking St Peter's Basilica:
- "The elder Pliny in his Natural History refers to the obelisk's transportation from Egypt to Rome by order of the Emperor Gaius (Caligula) as an outstanding event. The barge that carried it had a huge mast of fir wood which four men's arms could not encircle. One hundred and twenty bushels of lentils were needed for ballast. Having fulfilled its purpose, the gigantic vessel was no longer wanted. Therefore, filled with stones and cement, it was sunk to form the foundations of the foremost quay of the new harbour at Ostia.
Re-erecting the obelisk had daunted even Michelangelo, but Sixtus V was determined to erect it in front of St Peter's, of which the nave was yet to be built, and had a full-sized wooden mock-up erected within months of his election. Domenico Fontana, the assistant of Giacomo Della Porta in the Basilica's construction, presented the Pope with a little model crane of wood and a heavy little obelisk of lead, which Sixtus himself was able to raise by turning a little winch with his finger. Fontana had the project. The obelisk, half-buried in the debris of the ages, was first excavated as it stood; then it took from April 30 to May 17 1586 to move it on rollers to the Piazza: it required nearly 1000 men, 140 carthorses, 47 cranes. The re-erection, scheduled for September 14, the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, was watched by a large crowd. It was a famous feat of engineering, which made the reputation of Fontana, who detailed it in a book illustrated with copperplate etchings, Della Trasportatione dell'Obelisco Vaticano et delle Fabriche di Nostro Signore Papa Sisto V (1590), which itself set a new standard in communicating technical information and influenced subsequent architectural publications by its meticulous precision. Before being re-erected the obelisk was exorcised. It is said that Fontana had teams of relay horses to make his getaway if the enterprise failed. When Carlo Maderno came to build the Basilica's nave, he had to put the slightest kink in its axis, to line it precisely with the obelisk.
An obelisk stands in front of the church of Trinità dei Monti, at the head of the Spanish Steps. Another obelisk in Rome is sculpted as carried on the back of an elephant. Rome lost one of its obelisks, which had decorated the temple of Isis, where it was uncovered in the 16th century. The Medici claimed it for the Villa Medici, but in 1790 they managed to move it to the Boboli Gardens attached to the Palazzo Pitti in Florence, and left a replica in its stead.
Several more of the original Egyptian obelisks have been shipped and re-erected around the world. The best-known examples outside Rome are the pair of 21 m /68 ft Cleopatra's Needles in London(69 feet 187 tons) and New York City(70 feet 193 tons) and the 23 m / 75 ft 227 tons obelisk at the Place de la Concorde in Paris.
There are 29 known ancient Egyptian obelisks in the following locations:
- Egypt – 9
- Pharaoh Tuthmosis I, Karnak Temple, Luxor
- Pharaoh Ramses II, Luxor Temple
- Pharaoh Hatshepsut, Karnak Temple, Luxor
- Pharaoh Senusret I, Al-Masalla area of Al-Matariyyah district in Heliopolis, Cairo
- Pharaoh Ramses III, Luxor Museum
- Pharaoh Ramses II, Gezira Island, Cairo, 20.4 m
- Pharaoh Ramses II, Cairo International Airport, 16.97 m
- Pharaoh Seti II, Karnak Temple, Luxor, 7 m
- Pharoah Senusret I, Faiyum (ancient site of Crocodilopolis), 12.9 m
- France – 1
- Israel – 1
- Italy – 11 (includes the only one located in the Vatican City)
- Poland – 1
- Ramses II, Poznań Archaeological Museum, Poznań (on loan from Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung, Berlin)
- Turkey – 1
- United Kingdom – 4
- Pharaoh Tuthmosis III, "Cleopatra's Needle", on Victoria Embankment, London
- Pharaoh Amenhotep II, in the Oriental Museum, University of Durham
- Pharaoh Ptolemy IX, Philae Obelisk, at Kingston Lacy, near Wimborne Minster, Dorset
- Pharaoh Nectanebo II, British Museum, London
- United States – 1
One obelisk form is known from the early Assyrian
civilization, represented by the Black Obelisk
of King Shalmaneser III
from the 10th century BC, now in the British Museum
A number of obelisks were carved in the ancient Axumite Kingdom of Ethiopia. The most notable example – the 24 m high Obelisk of Axum carved around the 4th century AD – was looted by the Italians after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War and taken to Rome in 1937 where it stood in the Piazza di Porta Capena. Italy agreed in a 1947 UN agreement to return the obelisk but did not affirm its agreement until 1997, after years of pressure. In 2003 the Italian government made the first steps toward its return, and in 2008 it was finally re-erected.
The largest obelisk, Great Stele at Axum, now fallen, at 33 m high and 3 by 2 meters at the base (520 tons) is one of the largest single pieces of stone ever worked in human history (the largest is either at Baalbek or the Ramesseum) and probably fell during erection or soon after, destroying a large part of the massive burial chamber underneath it. The obelisks, properly termed stelae or the native hawilt or hawilti as they do not end in a pyramid, were used to mark graves and underground burial chambers. The largest of the grave markers were for royal burial chambers and were decorated with multi-story false windows and false doors, while nobility would have smaller less decorated ones. While there are only a few large ones standing, there are hundreds of smaller ones in various "stelae fields".
The Romans commissioned obelisks in an Egyptian style.
- Walled Obelisk, Hippodrome of Constantinople. Built by Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (905–959) and originally covered with gilded bronze plaques.
The obelisk stone (rock) crosses of Kerala
form another category of obelisks. The Syrian Christians or St. Thomas Christians
of Malabar on the west coast of India had close contacts with the Egyptian and Assyrian worlds, the original habitat of obelisks. The "Ray of the Sun" and Horus concepts are to be found in the idea of Christ and in the orientation of the churches East-West. The use of the cylinder and socket method is found in both structures.
The "Tello Obelisk", from Chavín de Huantar
, which used to be housed in the Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia del Perú in Lima
until it was relocated to the Museo Nacional de Chavín in July 2008 is a monolith stele with obelisk-like proportions.
Notable modern obelisks
(Listed in date order)
- St Luke Old Street (church), London, spire by Nicholas Hawksmoor circa 1727-33.
- Mamhead obelisk, one hundred feet, built 1742-1745 as an aid to shipping.
- Stowe School, Buckinghamshire – General Wolfe's Obelisk, 1754
- Kagul Obelisk in Tsarskoe Selo, 1772
- Chesma Obelisk in Gatchina, 1775
- Villa Medici, Rome – a 19th century copy of the Egyptian obelisk moved to the Boboli Gardens in Florence in 1790.
- Rumyantsev Obelisk in St Petersburg, 1799
- Obelisk at Slottsbacken, Stockholm, erected 1800
- Nelson memorial, Springfield Park, Liverpool, circa 1805.
- "Brightling Needle", Brightling, East Sussex (65 ft), circa 1815.
- Patriots' Grave, Old Burying Ground, Arlington, Massachusetts (1818).
- Captain Cook's Monument, Easby Moor, Great Ayton, North Yorkshire, 1827 (15.5m, 51ft).
- Battle of Groton Heights Monument (Fort Griswold), Groton, Connecticut, 1830, (41.15m, 135ft) dedicated to the defense of Groton and New London, and the defeat of Benedict Arnold's attack on New London.
- Bunker Hill Monument, Charlestown, Massachusetts – built between 1827 and 1843.
- Villa Torlonia, Rome – two obelisks erected 1842.
- Lansdowne Monument, near the Cherhill White Horse, Wiltshire, 1845, 38 metres, erected by the 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne to commemorate Sir William Petty.
- Reggio Emilia obelisk, comemorates marriage of Francis V, Duke of Modena to princess Adelgunde of Bavaria, built 1842.
- Rutherford's Monument near Anwoth, Scotland erected in 1842 as a memorial to Samuel Rutherford.
- The Political Martyrs monument, Edinburgh, erected 1844 as a memorial to the "Scottish Martyrs to Liberty".
- Newcastle, New South Wales – "The Obelisk", built 1850.
- Wellington Monument, Wellington, Somerset, completed 1854, (53.34m, 175ft).
- Obelisk of Fontenoy, 1860.
- Wellington Monument, 1861, (62m, 205ft), Phoenix Park, Dublin, Ireland.
- Lincoln's Tomb in Springfield, Illinois, 1865, (35.66m, 117ft).
- Brigadier-General John Nicholson's monument on top of the Margalla Pass aka "Nicholson's Defile" on the GT Road to Peshawar, about 40 Km's from Islamabad Pakistan. 1868. Picture at http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Nicholsons_Monument.jpg#filelinks
- Captain Cook Obelisk, Kurnell, New South Wales, 1870.
- The Dauphin County Veteran's Memorial Obelisk in Harrisburg, PA, completed 1876, (33.52m, 110ft).
- The Washington Monument in Washington DC, USA, measuring 169.29 m in height, is the world's tallest true obelisk; completed in 1884.
- The Oriskany Battlefield monument in Rome, NY, dedicated in 1884 as a memorial to the Revolutionary War battle in 1777.
- The Bennington Battle Monument in Bennington, Vermont, 1889.
- Dalhousie Obelisk, in Raffles Place, Singapore, 1891.
- The William Dudley Chipley Memorial, in the Plaza Ferdinand VII, Pensacola, Florida, 1901.
- The Sergeant Floyd Monument, on US Highway 75, Sioux City, Iowa, 1901.
- Joseph Smith Birthplace Memorial, South Royalton, Vermont, 1905.
- McKinley Monument, Niagara Square, Buffalo, New York, 1907, (96 ft / 29 m).
- The Veterans' Monument obelisk, constructed primarily from river rock collected from the nearby Doe River in downtown Elizabethton, Tennessee and with two short American Civil War field cannon, dedicated in 1904 to Union and Confederate veterans from Carter County, Tennessee.
- The Chalmette Monument, in Chalmette, Louisiana, commemorating the Battle of New Orleans, 1908.
- The War Memorial in London Square, Southport, Lancashire, England, designed by Grayson and Barnish, 1923. It is flanked by two colonnades each supported by Doric columns, all constructed of Portland stone.
- Jefferson Davis Monument at Jefferson Davis State Historic Site in Fairview, Kentucky, (351 ft / 107 m) tall, mostly concrete, 1924.
- The Foshay Tower, in Minneapolis, Minnesota, modeled after the Washington Monument, 1929.
- Obelisk of Montevideo, Uruguay, 1930.
- High Point Monument, Montague, New Jersey. A (220 ft /67 m) obelisk on top of New Jersey's highest point, above sea level, 1930.
- Foro Italico, Rome (on Lungotevere Maresciallo Diaz), erected to honour Mussolini, 1932.
- Obelisk of Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1936.
- Trylon and Perisphere, 1939 New York World's Fair, Flushing, New York; not a true obelisk, but an art deco variant, (700 ft / 213 m), 1939.
- Plaza Francia obelisk in Caracas, Venezuela, 1944.
- The Obelisk on One Tree Hill in Auckland, New Zealand
- Obelisk of São Paulo, Brazil, 1954.
- Trujillo Obelisk, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 1960, (137 ft / 42 m).
- Obelisk of La Paz, Bolivia
- Demidov Column in Barnaul, Siberia, Russia.
- Victory Obelisk in Moscow
- Abolition Park in Ponce, Puerto Rico.
- A small obelisk stands at Trinity site, the location of the first atomic bomb explosion.
- Rugby, North Dakota, the geographical center of North America (Mexico, USA and Canada).
- Pirulito da Praça Sete in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
- In Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., an obelisk stands in front of the Luxor Hotel, a pyramid-shaped hotel along The Strip.
- An obelisk stands in front of radio talk show host Clint Ferro's boyhood home, Endicott, New York, 1975.
- A large obelisk with the world's largest apple on top stands at Cornelia, Georgia. It was erected in 1925.
- Wirsching, Armin: Obelisken transportieren und aufrichten in Aegypten und in Rom. Norderstedt: Books on Demand 2007, ISBN 978-3 8334-8513-8