See O. Ore, Number Theory and Its History (1988); R. P. Burn, A Pathway into Number Theory (2d ed. 1996); J. H. Silverman, A Friendly Introduction to Number Theory (1996); M. A. Herkommer, Number Theory: A Programmer's Guide (1998); R. A. Mollin, Algebraic Number Theory (1999).
Branch of mathematics concerned with properties of and relations among integers. It is a popular subject among amateur mathematicians and students because of the wealth of seemingly simple problems that can be posed. Answers are much harder to come up with. It has been said that any unsolved mathematical problem of any interest more than a century old belongs to number theory. One of the best examples, recently solved, is Fermat's last theorem.
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Number theory may be subdivided into several fields, according to the methods used and the type of questions investigated. (See the list of number theory topics.)
The term "arithmetic" is also used to refer to number theory. This is a somewhat older term, which is no longer as popular as it once was. Number theory used to be called the higher arithmetic, but this too is dropping out of use. Nevertheless, it still shows up in the names of mathematical fields (arithmetic functions, arithmetic of elliptic curves, fundamental theorem of arithmetic). This sense of the term arithmetic should not be confused either with elementary arithmetic, or with the branch of logic which studies Peano arithmetic as a formal system. Mathematicians working in the field of number theory are called number theorists.
In elementary number theory, integers are studied without use of techniques from other mathematical fields. Questions of divisibility, use of the Euclidean algorithm to compute greatest common divisors, integer factorizations into prime numbers, investigation of perfect numbers and congruences belong here. Several important discoveries of this field are Fermat's little theorem, Euler's theorem, the Chinese remainder theorem and the law of quadratic reciprocity. The properties of multiplicative functions such as the Möbius function and Euler's φ function, integer sequences, factorials, and Fibonacci numbers all also fall into this area.
Many questions in number theory can be stated in elementary number theoretic terms, but they may require very deep consideration and new approaches outside the realm of elementary number theory to solve. Examples include:
Analytic number theory employs the machinery of calculus and complex analysis to tackle questions about integers. The prime number theorem (PNT) and the related Riemann hypothesis are examples. Waring's problem (representing a given integer as a sum of squares, cubes etc.), the twin prime conjecture (finding infinitely many prime pairs with difference 2) and Goldbach's conjecture (writing even integers as sums of two primes) are being attacked with analytical methods as well. Proofs of the transcendence of mathematical constants, such as π or e, are also classified as analytical number theory. While statements about transcendental numbers may seem to be removed from the study of integers, they really study the possible values of polynomials with integer coefficients evaluated at, say, e; they are also closely linked to the field of Diophantine approximation, where one investigates "how well" a given real number may be approximated by a rational one.
In algebraic number theory, the concept of a number is expanded to the algebraic numbers which are roots of polynomials with rational coefficients. These domains contain elements analogous to the integers, the so-called algebraic integers. In this setting, the familiar features of the integers (e.g. unique factorization) need not hold. The virtue of the machinery employed—Galois theory, group cohomology, class field theory, group representations and L-functions—is that it allows to recover that order partly for this new class of numbers.
Many number theoretic questions are best attacked by studying them modulo p for all primes p (see finite fields). This is called localization and it leads to the construction of the p-adic numbers; this field of study is called local analysis and it arises from algebraic number theory.
The geometry of numbers incorporates some basic geometric concepts, such as lattices, into number-theoretic questions. It starts with Minkowski's theorem about lattice points in convex sets, and leads to basic proofs of the finiteness of the class number and Dirichlet's unit theorem, two fundamental theorems in algebraic number theory.
Combinatorial number theory deals with number theoretic problems which involve combinatorial ideas in their formulations or solutions. Paul Erdős is the main founder of this branch of number theory. Typical topics include covering system, zero-sum problems, various restricted sumsets, and arithmetic progressions in a set of integers. Algebraic or analytic methods are powerful in this field.
Diophantus also looked for a method of finding integer solutions to linear indeterminate equations, equations that lack sufficient information to produce a single discrete set of answers. The equation is such an equation. Diophantus discovered that many indeterminate equations can be reduced to a form where a certain category of answers is known even though a specific answer is not.
Brahmagupta in 628 handled more difficult Diophantine equations. He used the chakravala method to solve quadratic Diophantine equations, including forms of Pell's equation, such as . His Brahma Sphuta Siddhanta was translated into Arabic in 773 and was subsequently translated into Latin in 1126. The equation was later posed as a problem in 1657 by the French mathematician Pierre de Fermat. The general solution to this particular form of Pell's equation was found over 70 years later by Leonhard Euler, while the general solution to Pell's equation was found over 100 years later by Joseph Louis Lagrange in 1767. Meanwhile, many centuries ago, the general solution to Pell's equation was recorded by Bhaskara II in 1150, using a modified version of Brahmagupta's chakravala method, which he also used to find the general solution to other indeterminate quadratic equations and quadratic Diophantine equations. Bhaskara's chakravala method for finding the general solution to Pell's equation was much simpler than the method used by Lagrange over 600 years later. Bhaskara also found solutions to other indeterminate quadratic, cubic, quartic, and higher-order polynomial equations. Narayana Pandit further improved on the chakravala method and found more general solutions to other indeterminate quadratic and higher-order polynomial equations.
In the 10th century, al-Haitham seems to have been the first to attempt to classify all even perfect numbers (numbers equal to the sum of their proper divisors) as those of the form where is prime. Al-Haytham is also the first person to state Wilson's theorem, namely that if p is prime then is divisible by . It is unclear whether he knew how to prove this result. It is called Wilson's theorem because of a comment made by Edward Waring in 1770 that John Wilson had noticed the result. There is no evidence that John Wilson knew how to prove it and most certainly Waring did not. Lagrange gave the first proof in 1771.
Amicable numbers played a large role in Islamic mathematics. In the 13th century, Persian mathematician Al-Farisi gave a new proof of Thabit ibn Qurra's theorem, introducing important new ideas concerning factorisation and combinatorial methods. He also gave the pair of amicable numbers 17296, 18416 which have been attributed to Euler, but we know that these were known earlier than al-Farisi, perhaps even by Thabit ibn Qurra himself. In the 17th century, Muhammad Baqir Yazdi gave the pair of amicable numbers 9,363,584 and 9,437,056 still many years before Euler's contribution.
In the eighteenth century, Euler and Lagrange made important contributions to number theory. Euler did some work on analytic number theory, and found a general solution to the equation . Lagrange found a solution to the more general Pell's equation. Euler and Lagrange solved these Pell equations by means of continued fractions, though this was more difficult than the Indian chakravala method.
The formulation of the theory of congruences starts with Gauss's Disquisitiones. He introduced the notation
Besides summarizing previous work, Legendre stated the law of quadratic reciprocity. This law, discovered by induction and enunciated by Euler, was first proved by Legendre in his Théorie des Nombres (1798) for special cases. Independently of Euler and Legendre, Gauss discovered the law about 1795, and was the first to give a general proof. The following have also contributed to the subject: Cauchy; Dirichlet whose Vorlesungen über Zahlentheorie is a classic; Jacobi, who introduced the Jacobi symbol; Liouville, Zeller(?), Eisenstein, Kummer, and Kronecker. The theory extends to include cubic and quartic reciprocity, (Gauss, Jacobi who first proved the law of cubic reciprocity, and Kummer).
To Gauss is also due the representation of numbers by binary quadratic forms.
Chebyshev (1850) gave useful bounds for the number of primes between two given limits. Riemann introduced complex analysis into the theory of the Riemann zeta function. This led to a relation between the zeros of the zeta function and the distribution of primes, eventually leading to a proof of prime number theorem independently by Hadamard and de la Vallée Poussin in 1896. However, an elementary proof was given later by Paul Erdős and Atle Selberg in 1949. Here elementary means that it does not use techniques of complex analysis; however, the proof is still very ingenious and difficult. The Riemann hypothesis, which would give much more accurate information, is still an open question.
which Euler and Legendre had proven for (and therefore by implication, all multiples of 3 and 4), Dirichlet showing that . Among the later French writers are Borel; Poincaré, whose memoirs are numerous and valuable; Tannery, and Stieltjes. Among the leading contributors in Germany were Kronecker, Kummer, Schering, Bachmann, and Dedekind. In Austria Stolz's Vorlesungen über allgemeine Arithmetik (1885-86), and in England Mathews' Theory of Numbers (Part I, 1892) were scholarly general works. Genocchi, Sylvester, and J. W. L. Glaisher have also added to the theory.