Nori (海苔) (김, kim or gim) is the Japanese name for various edible seaweed species of the red alga Porphyra including most notably P. yezoensis and P. tenera, sometimes called laver . The term nori is also commonly used to refer to the food products created from these "sea vegetables", similar to the Korean gim. Finished products are made by a shredding and rack-drying process that resembles papermaking. Japan, Korea, and China are the current major producers of nori, with total production valued at up to US $2 billion per year.
Originally, the term nori
was more generic and referred to various kinds of seaweeds including hijiki
. One of the oldest descriptions about nori is dated back to around the 8th century. In the Taihō Code
(大宝律令) enacted in 701, nori was already included in the form of taxation. In Utsubo Story
(宇津保物語) written around 987, nori was recognized as a common food. The original nori was formed as a paste, and the nori sheet was invented in Asakusa
(contemporary Tokyo), in the Edo period
by the method of Japanese papers
. The word nori
in Japanese has the same pronunciation as nori
(糊, "glue"), and it is presumed that these plants were also used to glue objects.
In 1867 the word "nori" first appeared in an English-language publication - "A Japanese and English Dictionary," by James C. Hepburn.
The word nori started to be used widely in the United States, and the product (imported in dry form from Japan) became widely available at natural food stores and Asian-American grocery stores starting in the 1960s, due to the influence of the macrobiotic movement, and in the 1970s with the growing number of sushi bars and Japanese restaurants.
Production and processing of nori by current methods is a highly advanced form of agriculture. The biology of Porphyra
, although complicated, is well understood, and this knowledge is used to control virtually every step of the production process. Farming takes place in the sea where the Porphyra
plants grow attached to nets suspended at the sea surface and where the farmers operate from boats. The plants grow rapidly, requiring about 45 days from "seeding" until the first harvest. Multiple harvests can be taken from a single seeding, typically at about ten-day intervals. Harvesting is accomplished using mechanical harvesters of a variety of configurations. Processing of raw product is mostly accomplished by highly automated machines that accurately duplicate traditional manual processing steps, but with much improved efficiency and consistency. The final product is a paper-thin, dark, black, dried sheet of approximately 18×20 cm and 3 grams in weight.
There are several grades of nori available in the United States. The most common, and least expensive, grades are imported from China, costing about six cents per sheet. At the high end, ranging up to ninety cents per sheet, are "delicate shin-nori (nori from the first of the year's several harvests) cultivated in Ariake Bay, off the island of Kyushu in Japan."
In Japan, over 600 square kilometres (230 sq. mi.) of Japanese coastal waters are given to producing 350,000 tonnes (344,470 tons), worth over a billion dollars. China produces about a third of this.
Nori is commonly used as a wrap for sushi
. It is also a common garnish or flavoring in noodle preparations and soups. Nori is most typically toasted prior to consumption ("yaki-nori" in Japanese). A very common and popular secondary product is toasted and flavored nori ("ajitsuke-nori" in Japanese), in which a flavoring mixture (variable, but typically soy sauce, spices and sugar in the Japanese style or sesame oil and salt in the Korean style) is applied in combination with the toasting process. Nori is also eaten by making it into a soy sauce flavored paste noritsukudani
A related product, prepared from the unrelated green algae Monostroma and Enteromorpha, is called aonori (青海苔 literally "blue nori") and is used like herbs on everyday meals like okonomiyaki and yakisoba.
Great source of Iron and Calcium.