Norfolk

Norfolk

[nawr-fuhk; for 2, 3 also nawr-fawk]
Norfolk, Hugh Bigod, 1st earl of: see Bigod, Hugh, 1st earl of Norfolk.
Norfolk, John Howard, 1st duke of, 1430?-1485, English nobleman. The grandson of Thomas Mowbray, 1st duke of Norfolk, he held considerable estates in Norfolk. A faithful adherent of the house of York in the Wars of the Roses, he was made sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk by Edward IV and entrusted with diplomatic missions. He later supported Richard III, who in 1483 made him the 1st duke of Norfolk of the Howard family (the Mowbray line having died out in 1476) and earl marshal of England. Norfolk was killed at the battle of Bosworth.
Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 2d duke of, 1443-1524, English nobleman, son of John Howard, 1st duke of Norfolk. He fought at the battle of Bosworth (1485) in which his father was killed. He himself was captured, attainted, and placed in the Tower of London. He was released (1489) by Henry VII and restored to the earldom of Surrey, which he had received in 1483, but not to the dukedom of Norfolk. He was entrusted by Henry VII with the care of the northern borders and in 1501 was made lord treasurer. Recognized as the leading general in England, he commanded the army that defeated (1513) the Scots at Flodden and was created (1514) duke of Norfolk. Although an influential member of Henry VIII's privy council, he was gradually forced to relinquish much of his power to the ascending Thomas Wolsey. He served as guardian of the realm during Henry's absence in 1520. In 1521, acting as lord high steward, he was compelled to sentence his friend Edward Stafford, 3d duke of Buckingham, to death.
Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 3d duke of, 1473-1554, English nobleman, prominent in the reign of Henry VIII; son of Thomas Howard, the 2d duke. He married (1495) a daughter of Edward IV and thus became brother-in-law to Henry VII. He fought (1513) against the Scots at Flodden and became (1514) earl of Surrey when his father was made duke of Norfolk. After his first wife's death he married Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Stafford, 3d duke of Buckingham. He served (1520-21) as lord lieutenant of Ireland. Succeeding his father as lord high treasurer in 1522 and as duke of Norfolk in 1524, Norfolk led the opposition to Thomas, Cardinal Wolsey. He supported Henry VIII's divorce from Katharine of Aragón and his marriage (1533) to Norfolk's niece Anne Boleyn. Later he presided (1536) at the trial and execution of Anne. Although Norfolk conducted the campaign against the Pilgrimage of Grace (1536), he remained Catholic. He was an enemy of Thomas Cromwell and instrumental in bringing about his fall (1540). After the execution in 1542 of another of his nieces, Catherine Howard, Henry's fifth queen, Norfolk's influence waned, and he was forced back into the position of a mere military commander. In 1546 he and his son Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, were charged with treason. Surrey was executed, but Norfolk was saved by the death of the king. He was released (1553) from prison on the accession of Mary I and restored to his dukedom. He successfully led the forces against the rebellion (1554) of Sir Thomas Wyatt, the younger.
Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 4th duke of, 1536-72, English nobleman, son of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey. He succeeded his grandfather, the 3d duke, in 1554. He was favored by Queen Elizabeth I, although he was jealous of the larger measure of confidence she placed in Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester. Norfolk commanded the English forces that intervened in Scotland in 1559-60 and in 1568 was chief of the commission that inquired into Scottish affairs after the flight of Mary Queen of Scots to England. A widower, he conducted secret negotiations for Mary's hand. Elizabeth heard of the project, however, and forbade it, and Norfolk was imprisoned (1569-70). On his release Norfolk was drawn into the plot of Ridolfi, agent of Philip II of Spain, who was planning a Spanish invasion and the dethronement of Elizabeth. The plot was discovered, Norfolk was imprisoned (1571) in the Tower of London, tried, and beheaded.
Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray, 1st duke of, c.1366-1399, English nobleman. He was created earl of Nottingham in 1383, and in 1385 he was made earl marshal of England for life. He joined Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, and the other baronial opponents of Richard II in 1387 and was one of the five lords appellant who "appealed" (i.e., accused) the king's favorites of treason and secured their conviction in the Merciless Parliament of 1388. After Richard regained control in 1389, however, he was conciliatory to Nottingham, who accompanied him to Ireland in 1394. In 1397, Nottingham aided the king in bringing to trial his former associates, Gloucester and the earls of Arundel and Warwick. Gloucester was placed in his custody, and he was possibly responsible for his murder. Although created duke of Norfolk in 1397, he began to fear that the king might turn on him and confided in the other remaining lord appellant, the duke of Hereford (later Henry IV). A dispute arose between Norfolk and Hereford when Hereford told the king of Norfolk's suspicions, and trial by combat was proposed. At the last moment, however, Richard intervened and banished both from the country, Norfolk for life. He died in Italy. A version of the story is told in Shakespeare's Richard II.
Norfolk, county (1991 pop. 736,700), 2,054 sq mi (5,320 sq km), E England. The county seat is Norwich. The region is one of flat, fertile farmlands, with a long, low coast bordering on the North Sea and the Wash. The principal rivers are the Ouse, the Bure, the Yare and its tributary the Wensum, and the Waveney. A series of connected shallow lakes, known as the Broads, occupies the eastern portion of the county. Norfolk produces cereal and root crops and supports extensive breeding of cattle and poultry. Fishing, the manufacture of agricultural machinery, and light industries are also important. Numerous vestiges of habitation dating from prehistoric times remain. After the Anglo-Saxon invasion of England, Norfolk became a part of the kingdom of East Anglia, the home of the "north folk" of that region (thus its name). In 1974, Norfolk was reorganized as a nonmetropolitan county, and a small area of NE East Suffolk was added to it.
Norfolk. 1 City (1990 pop. 21,476), Madison co., NE Nebr., on the Elkhorn River; inc. 1881. A trade and railroad center in a fertile farming region, it has a livestock market. Its industries produce animal feeds, food and beverages, and electronic products.

2 City (1990 pop. 261,229), independent and in no county, SE Va., on the Elizabeth River and the southern side of Hampton Roads; founded 1682, inc. as a city 1845. It is a port of entry and a major commercial, industrial, shipping, and distribution center. With Portsmouth and Newport News, it forms the Port of Hampton Roads, one of the world's best natural harbors. The city has 50 mi (80 km) of waterfront and an extensive maritime trade, exporting coal, grain, tobacco, seafood, and farm products. Industries include shipbuilding, meat and seafood processing, and the manufacture of lumber, steel, sheet metal, leather products, farm implements, textiles, trucks, and furniture.

Norfolk is also a major military center; with Portsmouth the city forms an extensive naval complex. The headquarters of the 5th Naval Dist., the Atlantic Fleet, the 2d Fleet, and the Supreme Allied Command are there. The operating base is the largest in the United States and includes a naval air station and other facilities. The Norfolk navy yard is in Portsmouth.

Of interest in Norfolk are St. Paul's Church (1738; only building to survive the burning of 1776); Fort Norfolk (1794); the Gen. Douglas MacArthur Memorial, where the general is buried; and many old homes. Norfolk is home to Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk State Univ., Virginia Wesleyan College, and Eastern Virginia Medical School. A national maritime center is there, and the city hosts an international arts festival. Bridge-tunnels link Norfolk with the Delmarva Peninsula and with Hampton, Va.

A rallying point for Tory forces at the start of the American Revolution, Norfolk was attacked (1776) by Americans and in the ensuing battle caught fire and was nearly destroyed. In the Civil War it was first a Confederate naval base; the battle between the Monitor and Merrimack was fought in Hampton Roads. Norfolk fell to Union forces in May, 1862.

Norfolk Island pine (Araucaria excelsa).

Evergreen timber and ornamental conifer (Araucaria excelsa, or A. heterophylla) of the family Araucariaceae, native to Norfolk Island in the South Pacific Ocean. In nature this pine grows to a height of 200 ft (60 m), with a trunk sometimes reaching 10 ft (3 m) in diameter. The wood of large trees is used in construction, furniture, and shipbuilding. The sapling stage is grown worldwide as a houseplant and as an outdoor ornamental in regions with a Mediterranean climate. The monkey puzzle tree is a relative.

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Island territory (pop., 2006: 1,863) of Australia, southwestern South Pacific Ocean. Located midway between New Caledonia and New Zealand, the island has an area of 13 sq mi (34 sq km). Discovered by Capt. James Cook in 1774, it became a British penal colony (1788–1814, 1825–55). The population of Pitcairn Island was moved here in 1856, and many residents of Norfolk Island are descended from crew members of HMS Bounty. Of volcanic origin, it has generally rugged terrain with abundant Norfolk Island pine. The major industry is tourism.

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City (pop., 2000: 234,403), southeastern Virginia, U.S. A port of entry on the Elizabeth River, it is located just south of Hampton Roads. Founded in 1682, it was incorporated as a borough in 1736. It was destroyed by fires in 1776 and 1799. Yellow fever killed 10percnt of the population in 1855. During the American Civil War the city was occupied by Union troops. Prosperity resumed after 1870 when railroads linked the port to other trade centres. With Newport News and Portsmouth it makes up the Port of Hampton Roads. Shipping, shipbuilding, and light industry are the major economic activities. Norfolk is the headquarters of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet and NATO's Supreme Allied Command, Atlantic.

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Norfolk is a low-lying county in East Anglia, England, United Kingdom. It has borders with Lincolnshire to the west, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest and with Suffolk to the south. Its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea coast, including The Wash. The county capital is Norwich, located at . Norfolk is the fifth largest ceremonial county in England, with an area of 5,371 km² (2,074 sq mi).

Of the 34 non-metropolitan English counties, Norfolk is the seventh most populous, with a population of 832,400 (mid 2006). However, as a largely rural county it has a low population density, 155 people per square kilometre. Norfolk has about a 30th the population density of Central London, the tenth lowest density county in the country, with 38% of the county’s population living in the three major built up areas of Norwich (194,200), Great Yarmouth (66,400) and King's Lynn (40,700). This is reflected in Norfolk's economy which is dominated by agriculture and tourism. A key destination The Broads lie mostly within the county. A recent bid to have them declared a National Park failed, because it would have meant conservation being more important than navigation. Historical sites, such as the centre of Norwich, also contribute to tourism.

In a contest held by Plantlife, Norfolk's county flower was voted to be the Common Poppy after complaints that the first choice Alexanders was not representative.

History

Norfolk was settled in pre-Roman times, with neolithic camps along the higher land in the west where flints could be quarried. A Brythonic tribe, the Iceni, inhabited the county from the first century BC, to the end of the first century (AD). The Iceni revolted against the Roman invasion in 47 AD, and again in 60 AD led by Boudica. The crushing of the second rebellion opened the county to the Romans. During the Roman era roads and ports were constructed throughout the county and farming took place.

Situated on the east coast, Norfolk was vulnerable to invasions from Scandinavia and northern Europe, and forts were built to defend against the Angles and Saxons. By the 5th century the Angles, for whom East Anglia and England itself are named, had established control of the region and later became the "north folk" and the "south folk", hence, "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Norfolk, and several adjacent areas, became the kingdom of East Anglia, later merging with Mercia and then Wessex. The influence of the Early English settlers can be seen in the many "thorpes", "tons" and "hams" of placenames. In the 9th century the region again came under attack, this time from Vikings who killed the king, Edmund the Martyr. In the centuries before the Norman Conquest the wetlands of the east of the county began to be converted to farmland, and settlements grew in these areas. Migration into East Anglia must have been high, as by the time of the Conquest and Domesday Book survey, it was one of the most densely populated parts of the British Isles.

During the high and late Middle Ages the county developed arable agriculture and woolen industries. The economy was in decline by the time of the Black Death, which dramatically reduced the population in 1349, suffice to say that the current population has yet to equal the population from this time. By the 16th century Norwich had grown to become the second largest city in England, but in 1665 the Great Plague of London again killed around one third of the population. During the English Civil War Norfolk was largely Parliamentarian. The economy and agriculture of the region declined somewhat, and during the industrial revolution Norfolk developed little industry and was a late addition to the railway network.

In the 20th century the county developed a role in aviation. The first development in airfields came with the First World War; there was then a massive expansion during the Second World War with the growth of the Royal Air Force and the influx of the American USAAF 8th Air Force which operated from many Norfolk Airfields. During the Second World War agriculture rapidly intensified, and has remained very intensive since with the establishment of large fields for cereal and oil seed rape growing. Norfolk's low-lying land and easily eroded cliffs, many of which are chalk and clay, make it vulnerable to the sea, the most recent major event being the North Sea flood of 1953.

The low-lying section of coast between Kelling and Lowestoft Ness is currently managed by the Environment Agency to protect the Broads from sea flooding. Management policy for the North Norfolk coastline is described in the North Norfolk Shoreline Management Plan which was published in 2006 but has yet to be accepted by the local authorities. The Shoreline Management Plan states that the stretch of coast will be protected for at least another 50 years, but that in the face of sea level rise and post-glacial lowering of land levels in the South East, there is an urgent need for further research to inform future management decisions, including the possibility that the sea defences may have to be realigned to a more sustainable position. Natural England have contributed some research into the impacts on the environment of various realignment options. The draft report of their research was leaked to the press, who created great anxiety by reporting that Natural England plan to abandon a large section of the Norfolk Broads, villages and farmland face to the sea to save the rest of the Norfolk coastline from the impact of climate change.

Economy and industry

In 1998 Norfolk had a Gross Domestic Product of £9,319 million, making it 1.5% of England's economy and 1.25% of the United Kingdom's economy. The GDP per head was £11,825, compared to £13,635 for East Anglia, £12,845 for England and £12,438 for the United Kingdom. In 1999-2000 the county has an unemployment rate of 5.6%, compared to 5.8% for England and 6.0% for the UK.

Much of Norfolk's flat and fertile land has been drained and converted to arable land. Chief arable crops are sugar beet, wheat, barley (for brewing) and oil seed rape. Over 20% of employment in the county is in the agriculture and food industries. Agribusiness has been successful in the county, and farming is very intensive with large fields, and many formerly family-run farms have been agglomerated into large farms which are highly efficient but criticised for reducing biodiversity, employment and damaging the community.

Well-known companies in Norfolk are Norwich Union, Colman's and Bernard Matthews. The Construction Industry Training Board is based on the former airfield of RAF Bircham Newton. The BBC East region is centred on Norwich (though covers as far west as Milton Keynes).

To help local industry in Norwich, Norfolk, the local council offers a wireless service.

Education

Primary and secondary

Norfolk has a completely comprehensive state education, with secondary school age from 11 to 16 or 18, as well as several private schools. In many rural areas, there is no nearby sixth form. Sixth form colleges are found in larger towns. There are twelve independent schools including the Gresham's School in Holt in the north of the county, and Norwich School, in Norwich. The Kings Lynn district has the largest school population. Norfolk is also home to Wymondham College, the U.K.'s largest remaining state boarding school.

Tertiary

The University of East Anglia is located on the outskirts of Norwich; and Norwich University College of the Arts (until November 2007, known as Norwich School of Art and Design) is situated at St. George's Street, in the city centre, and next to the River Wensum.

Politics

Norfolk is a shire county, under the control of Norfolk County Council. This is divided into seven local government districts, Breckland District, Broadland District, Great Yarmouth Borough, King's Lynn and West Norfolk Borough, North Norfolk District, Norwich City and South Norfolk.

In 2007 the Department for Communities and Local Government referred Norwich City Council's proposal to become a new unitary authority to the Boundary Committee. The Boundary Committee consulted local bodies and reported against the proposal, so Norfolk's local government structure remains unchanged.

However, consultation on the Committee's 2008 proposals for Norfolk closed on September 26th, 2008, with final recommendations to Government by 31st December, 2008. Thereafter,a decision will be made by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government. Until then, the future organisation of the County remains uncertain.

Norfolk County Council is Conservative-controlled and led by Daniel Cox. There are 46 Conservative councillors, 22 Labour councillors, 14 Liberal Democrat councillors and two Green councillors. There was 63% turnout at the most recent local election.

In the House of Commons, Norfolk is represented by four Conservative Members of Parliament, three Labour MPs and one Liberal Democrat. Labour represent the more urban areas of Norwich and Great Yarmouth. The former Home Secretary, Charles Clarke, represents Norwich South.

Norfolk Election Results 5th May 2005
Parliamentary County Council [1]
Party Votes Votes % Seats Seats % Party Votes Votes % Seats Seats %
Conservative 163224 40% 4 50% Conservative 158942 39% 46 55%
Labour 122650 30% 3 38% Green 18786 5% 2 2%
Liberal Democrat 103805 25% 1 13% Labour 108043 27% 22 26%
Others [2] 19371 5% 0 0% Liberal Democrat 113048 28% 14 17%
Others [3] 6924 2% 0 0%
Totals 409050 8 405743 84
Turnout 64% 63%
Notes
[1] Includes Town Close ward by-election held 26 May 2005, electors in Town Close didn't vote for a County Councilor on 5 May 2005 due to the death of one of the candidates between close of nominations and polling day.
[2] UKIP, Green, LCA, Independents, Others
[3] UKIP, LCA, Independents, Others

Settlements and communications

Norfolk's county town and only city is Norwich, one of the largest settlements in England during the Norman era. Norwich is home to Norfolk's only university, the University of East Anglia, and is the county's main business and culture centre. Other principal towns include the port-town of King's Lynn and the seaside resort and Broads gateway town of Great Yarmouth. There are also several market towns: Aylsham, Downham Market, Dereham, Fakenham,Diss, Holt, North Walsham, Swaffham, Thetford and Wymondham.

Norfolk is one the few counties in England that does not have a motorway. The A11 connects Norfolk to Cambridge and London and the A47 runs west to the East Midlands. The Great Eastern Main Line is a major railway from London Liverpool Street Station to Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk. The only major airport in the county is Norwich International Airport, which offers flights within Europe, including a link to Amsterdam which offers onward flights throughout the world.

Dialect, accent and nickname

The Norfolk Dialect, also known as "Broad Norfolk", is the accent/dialect of people living in Norfolk, although over the modern age much of the vocabulary and phrases have died out due to a number of factors, such as radio, TV and people from other parts of the country coming to Norfolk. As a result the speech of Norfolk is more of an accent than dialect, though one part retained from the Norfolk dialect is the distinctive grammar of the region.

More cutting, perhaps, was the formerly-used pejorative medical term "Normal for Norfolk", now discredited, the use of which is banned by the profession.

Tourist highlights

Norfolk is a popular tourist destination; major attractions include beaches, the Broads, and the city of Norwich. The Queen's residence of Sandringham provides an all year round tourist attraction. Rural parts of the county, notably the area around Burnham Market, are also popular locations for city dwellers to purchase weekend homes. Arthur Conan Doyle first conceived the idea for The Hound Of The Baskervilles whilst holidaying in Cromer with Bertram Fletcher Robinson after hearing local folklore tales regarding the mysterious hound known as Black Shuck.

People of Norfolk

see also People from Norfolk Some notable people who were born and/or raised in Norfolk:

People associated with Norfolk

The following people were not born or brought up in Norfolk but are long-term residents of Norfolk, are well-known for living in Norfolk at some point in their lives, or have contributed in some significant way to the county.

See also

References

External links

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