At first the treaty led to improving relations between the Kuomintang, Chiang Kai-shek's government and the USSR. Following the signing of the pact, the Soviet Union began sending aircraft to the Chinese national government in Operation Zet, as well as economic aid to help stave off Japanese occupation. Chiang believed this was a precursor to Soviet intervention into the war, however as time passed he soon realized that the USSR was constricted in what aid it could actually provide, due to not wanting to upset the tacit alliance with Britain, France, and later the United States, who favored China in the war but, would back Japan against the USSR in order to weaken both.
The treaty also allowed the USSR to focus its attention more on the Eastern border where Nazi Germany was building up for what appeared to be war with the USSR especially after the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact was signed. The pact contributed to the worsening relationship between China and Nazi Germany, which culminated in the end of German military assistance in China.
The treaty was one of the first diplomatic treaties after the fall of Imperial China.
Lee, Chong-Sik.Revolutionary Struggle in Manchuria: Chinese Communism and Soviet Interest, 1922-1945.Berkley:U of CA Press,1983.
Lawrance, Alan.China Since 1919: Revolution and Reform, A Sourcebook.New York: Routledge,2004.
Garver, John W. "Chiang Kai-shek's Quest for Soviet Entry into the Sino-Japanese War." Political Science Quarterly 102, no. 102 (1987): 295-316.