Television news refers to disseminating current events via the medium of television. "News bulletins" or "newscasts" are programs lasting from seconds to hours that provide updates on world, national, regional or local news events. Television news is very image-based, showing video of many of the events that are reported. Television channels may provide news bulletins as part of a regularly scheduled news program. Less often, television shows may be interrupted or replaced by "news flashes" to provide news updates on current events of great importance or sudden events of great importance.
A term which has entered common parlance to differentiate cable news from traditional news broadcasts is network news, in reference to the traditional television networks on which such broadcasts air. A classic example is the cable news channel MSNBC, which overlaps with (and, in the case of breaking world-changing events, pre-empts) its network counterpart NBC News.
Radio news is the same as television news but is transmitted through the medium of the radio. It is more based on the audio aspect rather than the visual aspect. Sound bites are captured through various reporters and played back through the radio. News updates occur more often on the radio than on the television - usually about once or twice an hour.
At most news/talk radio stations, newscasts run from :00-:06 minutes after the top of each hour. Some stations produce the entire six minutes on their own. Others begin with a network newscast, which covers national and world news, followed by a 2- or 3-minute local newscast. Most of the time, time is taken out of the news "window" for commercials and a weather forecast. In larger cities, traffic reports are also included. Some stations do traffic only during rush hour while others cover traffic around the clock.
Local TV news stations normally broadcast 3-4 times a day: 5:00 & 6:00 in the morning, Noon, 5:00 & 6:00 in the evening, and 10:00 or 11:00 at night. Many stations title their newscasts with catchy names like "Daybreak," "Good Morning (insert city here)," "Live at Five," "00," or "Nightcast." These names are intended to set one station apart from the rest, especially for viewers who are chosen for audience measurement surveys. If the respondent was unable to provide a channel number or call letters, the newscast title is often enough for the appropriate station to receive Nielsen ratings credit.
Radio station newscasts can range from as little as a minute to as much as the station's entire schedule, such as the case of all-news radio.
In some parts of the world there are 'rolling news' TV channels that broadcast news 24 hours a day, such as CNN in the United States or BBC News in the United Kingdom. Many news reports presented on the Internet are updated 24 hours a day.
Newscasts consist of several different elements, introduced by a news presenter or presenters. The presenters read 'links' and do interviews.
Most news stories come in the form of short 'packages'. These are pre-recorded reports usually lasting from one to five minutes. News reporters gather and edit together interview clips, pictures and their own 'pieces to camera' to tell a story. They script and record a 'voice-over' to explain the pictures and link the elements together.
Some stories are done as live reports. This can be a reporter on the scene of a story either being interviewed by a studio presenter (sometimes known as a 'two-way'), a reporter interviewing one or more other people, or simply live pictures and sound of an event. The sound and pictures are sent back to the TV station via fixed cable links, bounced off a satellite through a satellite truck, or sent through microwave radio transmissions from a vehicle carrying a microwave transmitter. With the growth of "rolling news" channels the use of live material has increased enormously and TV reporters are now often judged as much on their ability to perform live in front of a camera as on their package-making or writing skills.
TV news programs are put together by producers, who decide what goes in and what gets left out, and how long and in what form each story is presented. They put together 'running orders' - a list of the stories in what they decide is the right order.
A separate news editor or assignment editor is often responsible for co-ordinating the gathering of material.
The invention of telecommunications and broadcasting has resulted in "the uncoupling of space and time." Spatial distanciation no longer required temporal distanciation. Information can be transmitted over long distances with hardly any delay.
Broadcasting, especially news programs, have changed the way we perceive many people, ideas, jobs, etc. At one time, the leadership and authority of politicians were in awe with everybody . Now that their speeches, actions and decisions are all recorded and broadcast on news programs, people realized they make mistakes too, and are just like any other person. Not only does TV decrease our awe, it also increases the politician's self-doubt and lowers self-esteem. When giving a speech, we can see the speech-givers nerves and anxiety up close.