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- This article is about the lunar phase; for other uses, see New Moon (disambiguation).

In astronomical terminology, the new moon is the lunar phase that occurs when the Moon, in its monthly orbital motion around Earth, lies between Earth and the Sun, and is therefore in conjunction with the Sun as seen from Earth. At this time, the dark (unilluminated) portion of the Moon faces almost directly toward Earth, so that the Moon is invisible to the naked eye, as seen from Earth.

The original meaning of the phrase "new moon" was the first visible crescent of the Moon, after conjunction with the Sun. This takes place over the western horizon in a brief period between sunset and moonset, and therefore the precise time and even the date of the appearance of the new moon by this definition will be influenced by the geographical location of the observer. The astronomical new moon, sometimes known as the dark moon to avoid confusion, occurs by definition at the moment of conjunction in ecliptic longitude with the Sun, when the Moon is invisible from the Earth. This moment is unique and does not depend on location, and under certain circumstances it may be coincident with a solar eclipse.

The new moon is the beginning of the month in lunar calendars such as the Muslim calendar, and in lunisolar calendars such as the Hebrew calendar, Hindu calendars, Buddhist calendar, and Chinese calendar.

- $d\; =\; 5.597661\; +\; 29.5305888610\; times\; N\; +\; (102.026\; times\; 10^\{-12\})times\; N^2$

where N is an integer, starting with 0 for the first new moon in the year 2000, and that is incremented by 1 for each successive synodic month; and the result d is the number of days (and fractions) since 2000-01-01 00:00:00 reckoned in the time scale known as Terrestrial Time (TT) used in ephemerides.

To obtain this moment expressed in Universal Time (UT, world clock time), add the result of following approximate correction to the result d obtained above:

- $-0.000739\; -\; (235\; times\; 10^\{-12\})times\; N^2$ days

Periodic perturbations change the time of true conjunction from these mean values. For all new moons between 1601 and 2401, the maximum difference is 0.592 days = 14h13m in either direction. The duration of a lunation (i.e. the time from new moon to the next new moon) varies in this period between 29.272 and 29.833 days, i.e. −0.259d = 6h12m shorter, or +0.302d = 7h15m longer than average . This range is smaller than the difference between mean and true conjunction, because during one lunation the periodic terms cannot all change to their maximum opposite value.

See the article on the full moon cycle for a fairly simple method to compute the moment of new moon more accurately.

The long-term error of the formula is approximately: 1 cy² seconds in TT, and 11 cy² seconds in UT (cy is centuries since 2000; see section Explanation of the formulae for details.)

constant term:

- Like Meeus, apply the constant terms of the aberration of light for the Sun and light-time correction for the Moon to obtain the apparent difference in ecliptic longitudes:

- Sun: +20.496"

- Moon: −0.704"

- Correction in conjunction: −0.000451 days.

- For UT: at 1 January 2000, ΔT (= TT − UT ) was +63.83 s ; hence the correction for the clock time UT = TT − ΔT of the conjunction is:

- −0.000739 days.

quadratic term:

- In ELP2000–85 (see Chapront et alii 1988), D has a quadratic term of −5.8681"T²; expressed in lunations N, this yields a correction of +87.403N² days to the time of conjunction. The term includes a tidal contribution of 0.5×(−23.8946 "/cy²). The most current estimate from Lunar Laser Ranging for the acceleration is (see Chapront et alii 2002): (−25.858 ±0.003)"/cy². Therefore the new quadratic term of D is = -6.8498"T² . Indeed the polynomial provided by Chapront et alii (2002) provides the same value (their Table 4). This translates to a correction of +14.622N² days to the time of conjunction; the quadratic term now is:

- +102.026N² days.

- For UT: analysis of historical observations show that ΔT has a long-term increase of +31 s/cy² . Converted to days and lunations , the correction from ET to UT becomes:

- −235N² days.

The theoretical tidal contribution to ΔT is about +42 s/cy² ; the smaller observed value is thought to be mostly due to changes in the shape of the Earth . Because the discrepancy is not fully explained, uncertainty of our prediction of UT (rotation angle of the Earth) may be as large as the difference between these values: 11 s/cy². The error in the position of the Moon itself is only maybe 0.5"/cy² , or (because the apparent mean angular velocity of the Moon is about 0.5"/s), 1 s/cy² in the time of conjunction with the Sun.

Recently an attempt to unify Muslims on a scientifically calculated worldwide calendar has been adopted by both the Fiqh Council of North America and European Council for Fatwa and Research. The new calculation requires that conjunction occur before sunset in Mecca, Saudi Arabia and that moon set on the following day must take place after sunset. These can be precisely calculated and therefore a unified calendar is imminent if it becomes adopted worldwide.

The new moon is the beginning of the month in the Chinese calendar. Some Buddhist Chinese keep a vegetarian diet on the new moon and full moon each month.

The new moon signifies the start of every Jewish month, and is considered an important date in the Hebrew calendar. The modern form of the calendar is a rule-based lunisolar calendar, akin to the Chinese calendar, measuring months defined in lunar cycles as well as years measured in solar cycles, and distinct from the purely lunar Islamic calendar and the almost entirely solar Gregorian calendar.

The native messianic Pentecostal group, the New Israelites of Peru, keeps the new moon as a Sabbath of rest. As an evangelical church, it follows the Bible's teachings that God sanctified the seventh day, now largely known as Saturday, as the Shabbat, and the new moons in addition to it. See Ezekiel 46:1,3. No work may be done from dusk until dusk, and the services run for 11 hours, although a large number spend 24 hours within the gates of the temples, sleeping and singing praises throughout the night.

The new moon is also an important event in Wicca.

The new moon is also important in astrology, as is the full moon.

- Sacred Astronomy from Zaytuna institute
- CrescentWatch.org from Zaytuna Institute
- Moon sighting Committee World-wide of Khalid Shaukat
- Moon Sighting from Committee For Crescent Observation, Intl.
- Islamic Crescent Observation Project
- The Length of the Lunar Cycle (numerical integration analysis)
- Predicting the First Visibility of the Lunar Crescent

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Last updated on Sunday October 05, 2008 at 20:04:04 PDT (GMT -0700)

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.

Last updated on Sunday October 05, 2008 at 20:04:04 PDT (GMT -0700)

View this article at Wikipedia.org - Edit this article at Wikipedia.org - Donate to the Wikimedia Foundation

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