Neum (Latin Neum, Greek Nèon, Νεον) is the only seaside town in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Around it there is 24.5 km (15.23 miles) of coastline which is the only access of this country to the Adriatic Sea. It is located in the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity.
Neum has long, warm summers and short, mild winters. It ranks among the coastal towns with the most sunny days per year.
The average sea temperature ranges from 13ºC (55ºF) in January to 32ºC (90ºF) in July and August. Popular activities include swimming and sun bathing, walks along the beach, boating and various water-sports.
Neum is 60 km (about 40 miles) from Dubrovnik (80 km - about 50 miles - from the Dubrovnik airport), 70 km (about 45 miles) from Mostar and Međugorje and 30 km (about 20 miles) from Ploče and Metković, both of which have railway stations.
The Neum region cuts Croatia into two non-contiguous parts. This is a result of the Treaty of Karlowitz of 1699. In this treaty the Republic of Dubrovnik gave the Neum region to the Ottoman Empire to ensure that it would not border on the encroaching Venetian Republic.
The fact that the border into Bosnia and Herzegovina must be crossed to reach the southernmost region of Croatia has caused the Croatian Government to plan a bridge from Klek to Pelješac to circumvent the area. Since this could potentially violate Bosnia Herzegovina rights under the International Law of the Sea, these plans have been put on hold until a mutually satisfactory solution can be reached.
Neum is not of any importance as a freight port. Among other reasons, the road to the rest of Bosnia is of far too bad quality, not suitable for heavy vehicles. The road is more suitable as a tourist adventure road. There are plans to build a real seaport and a better road, therefore the Croatian bridge must have a high clearance according to Bosnian view. The main freight port for Bosnia today is Ploče (in Croatia) further north, which has a railway to Bosnia-Herzegovina.
The town of Neum itself had 1,993 residents:
The Ragusan Republic gave the region of Neum to the Turks in the war between the Holy League and the Ottoman Empire. It gave the Turkish army access to the sea, but just as important to Ragusa it gave them a protection from the Venetian territories.
The Ragusan Republic relinquished the region of Klek - Neum to the Turks in the war between the Holy League and the Ottoman Empire (second half of the 17th c.) as an exit to the sea and a protection corridor between the territories held by Ragusa and the Venetian territories (in Dalmatia). For the last time the Turks used the bay for military purposes while withdrawing after the entering of Austria into Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878. Neum was part of the Banovina of Croatia from 1939 to 1941.
The town was host to a conference entitled the Constitutional-law position of Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina in late October 2005.
The linđo is traditionally danced in the Neum region.