nephrology

nephrology

[nuh-frol-uh-jee]

Branch of medicine dealing with kidney function and diseases. An understanding of kidney physiology is important not only in treating kidney disease but in knowing the effect of drugs, diet, and hypertension on kidney disease, and vice versa. The first scientific observations of the kidney were made in the mid-17th century by Lorenzo Bellini (1643–1704) and Marcello Malpighi; Carl Ludwig was the first to elaborate on their true physiological function (1844). A key development in nephrology was the permanent arteriovenous shunt (1960), which made repeated hemodialysis feasible, instantly changing the outlook for chronic-renal-disease patients from certain death to 90percnt survival. Seealso dialysis, kidney failure, kidney stone, kidney transplant, nephron.

Learn more about nephrology with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Nephrology (from Greek: nephros, "kidney"; and λόγος, logos, "speech" lit. "to talk about kidney") is a branch of internal medicine and pediatrics dealing with the study of the function and diseases of the kidney.

Scope of the specialty

Nephrology concerns itself with the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases, including electrolyte disturbances and hypertension, and the care of those requiring renal replacement therapy, including dialysis and renal transplant patients. Many diseases affecting the kidney are systemic disorders not limited to the organ itself, and may require special treatment. Examples include systemic vasculitides and autoimmune diseases such as lupus.

Training

A nephrologist is a physician who has been trained in the diagnosis and management of kidney disease, by regulating blood pressure, regulating electrolytes, balancing fluids in the body, and administering dialysis. Nephrologists treat many different kidney disorders including acid-base disorders, electrolyte disorders, nephrolithiasis (kidney stones), hypertension (high blood pressure), acute kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Nephrology is a subspecialty of internal medicine. In the United States, after medical school nephrologists complete a three year residency in internal medicine followed by a two year (or longer) fellowship in nephrology.

Knowledge of internal medicine is required to obtain certification. To become a nephrologist requires many years of school and training. Nephrologists also must be approved by the board. To be approved, the physician must fulfill the requirements for education and training in nephrology in order to qualify to take the board's examination. If a physician passes the examination, then he or she can become a nephrology specialist. Typically, nephrologists also need two to three years of training in an ACGME accredited program in nephrology.

Information that a nephrologist learns in training are fluid and acid base and electrolyte physiology, medical management of acute and chronic renal failure, glomerular and casuclar disorders, tubular/interstitial disorders, mineral metabolism, clinical pharmacology, hypertension, epidemiology, and nutrition. Procedures a nephrologist may learn in a training program include native and transplant kidney biopsies, ultrasound guidance, placement of temporary dialysis catheters, placement of tunneled hemodialysis catheters and placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters. Nearly all programs train nephrologists in continuous renal replacement therapy; fewer than half train in the provision of plasmapheresis. Once training is satisfactorily completed, the physician is eligible to take the ABIM nephrology examination. Subspecialties within nephrology include interventional nephrology, dialytician, and transplant nephrology.

Only pediatric trained physicians are able to train in pediatric nephrology, and internal medicine (adult) trained physicians may enter general (adult) nephrology fellowships. Physicians that achieved training in both medicine and pediatrics may subspecialize in both adult and pediatric nephrology.

Conditions requiring a nephrologist

Patients are referred to nephrology specialists for various reasons, such as:

Urologists are surgical specialists of the urinary tract (see urology). They are involved in renal diseases that might be amenable to surgery:

  • Diseases of the Bladder and prostate such as malignancy, stones, or obstruction of the urinary tract.

Diagnosis

As with the rest of medicine, important clues as to the cause of any symptom are gained in the history and physical examination.

Laboratory tests are almost always aimed at: urea, creatinine, electrolytes, and urinalysis, which is frequently the key test in suggesting a diagnosis.

More specialized tests can be ordered to discover or link certain systemic diseases to kidney failure such as hepatitis b or hepatitis c, lupus serologies, paraproteinemias such as amyloidosis or multiple myeloma or various other systemic diseases that lead to kidney failure. Collection of a 24-hour sample of urine can give valuable information on the filtering capacity of the kidney and the amount of protein loss in some forms of kidney disease. However, 24-hour urine samples have recently, in the setting of chronic renal disease, been replaced by spot urine ratio of protein and creatinine.

Other tests often performed by nephrologists are:

Therapy

Many kidney diseases are treated with medication, such as steroids, DMARDs (disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs), antihypertensives (many kidney diseases feature hypertension). Often erythropoietin and vitamin D treatment is required to replace these two hormones, the production of which stagnates in chronic kidney disease.

When chronic kidney disease progresses to stage five, dialysis or transplant is required. Please refer to the main articles dialysis and renal transplant for a comprehensive account of these treatments.

Sub-specialties within nephrology include interventional nephrologists who focus on access placement and maintenance, a dialytician who focus upon ordering dialysis for patients, and transplant nephrologists who focus on the acute or sub-acute monitoring of immunosuppression in the transplant patient.

If patients proceed to transplant, nephrologists will continue to follow patients to monitor the immunosuppressive regimen and watch for the infection that can occur post transplant.

Notable nephrologists

Organizations

In the USA, the National Kidney Foundation is a national organization representing patients and professionals who treat kidney diseases. The American Society of Nephrology (ASN) is a not-for-profit organization of 11,000 physicians and scientists dedicated to the study of nephrology and committed to providing a forum for the promulgation of information regarding the latest research and clinical findings on kidney diseases. In the United Kingdom, the National Kidney Federation represents patients, and the Renal Association represents renal physicians and works closely with the National Service Framework for kidney disease. The Renal Support Network (RSN) is a nonprofit, patient-focused, patient-run organization that provides non-medical services to those affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD). The American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) is a non-profit, patient-centric group focused on improving the health and well-being of CKD and dialysis patients.

References

External links

Search another word or see nephrologyon Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature