Reportedly, in order to become a pilot, blacks had to achieve high test scores and be college educated. Those standards were higher than those set for white pilots, and to the surprise of the Army, far more applicants surpassed the requirements than were required to fill available roles. The unit served in action with distinction.
Upon arrival in Italy in December 1943, the group was based first at Montecorvino, then successively Capodichino, Ramitelli Airfield, and Cattolica. The 332d flew four fighter aircraft types in combat: the Bell P-39 Airacobra, Curtiss P-40 Warhawk, Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, and North American P-51 Mustang.
In a year and a half of combat operations, the "Red Tails" (so named for the group identification tail markings on their aircraft) gained a reputation as bomber escorts. A commonly held belief that the 332rd Fighter Group never lost to German fighters any B-17s or B-24s it was escorting is now under investigation, as Air Force records indicate that at least twenty-five bombers were lost to enemy fire, but the group's record is nonetheless distinguished in that regard. Its four fighter squadrons are credited with 112 aerial victories, including three German jets. Three of the Tuskegee Airmen earned four aerial victory credits each: 1st Lt. Lee A. Archer of the 302d Fighter Squadron, Capt. Edward L. Toppins of the 99th Fighter Squadron, and Captain Joseph D. Elsberry of the 301st Fighter Squadron.
At the end of the war, more than 70 Red Tail pilots had been killed or were missing in action.
The 332nd Fighter Group was re-designated the 332nd Air Expeditionary Group and reactivated in 1998. In 2005 it became the 332nd Air Expeditionary Operations Group and was made the flying component of the 332d Air Expeditionary Wing in Iraq.
From May 1944 to April 1945 the 332nd FG operated with the strategic Fifteenth Air Force, primarily engaged in protecting bombers that struck such objectives as oil refineries, factories, airfields, and marshalling yards in Italy, France, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece. Its planes also made strafing attacks on airdromes, railroads, highways, bridges, river traffic, troop concentrations, radar facilities, power stations, and other targets.
The group received a Distinguished Unit Citation for a mission on 24 March 1945 when it escorted B-17's during a raid on a tank factory at Berlin, fought off the interceptors that attacked the formation, then strafed transportation targets while flying back to its base in Italy. The group was reduced to the standard three fighter squadrons on March 6, 1945, with the inactivation of the 302nd FS.
The 332nd FG returned to the United States in October 1945 and was inactivated on October 19.
Publication No. WO/2010/035252 Published on April 1, Assigned to Stamford Devices for Nebuliser System (Irish, British Inventors)
Apr 03, 2010; GENEVA, April 5 -- John Power, Conor Duffy, Dermot Joseph Clancy and Kieran Hyland, all from Ireland, and Niall Smith, Great...