Theoretically, any prefix could be called a preverbal element. However, in practice, the term preverb applies more narrowly in these families, and refers to a prefixed element that is normally outside the premise of verbal morphology, such as locations of noun elements, or less often, noun elements themselves.
|You were talking about me|
(lit. you were talking on me)
|He is bringing (liquid) medicine|
Note in the two examples that the meaning of the future tense is achieved only by adding the preverb; no other grammatical change occurs. Some examples where preverbs have directional meanings are:
Again, note that only the preverbs are changed in order to convey the meaning of various directional meanings. It should also be noted that preverbs add directional meanings not only to the verbs of motion, but to any kind of verbs. Compare the examples of the verb -tser- ("write"):
As can be seen from the examples the preverb changes according to the indirect object (the person for (to) whom the verb is being done).
In Georgian many verbs have a common root. For example, "end" and "stay" have the same verb root, -rch-. The meanings of these verbs are rather distinguished through their preverbs and other elements of the verb compound:
As one clearly notices, the verbs are identical in the present tense, but differ in the future tense, because of their preverbs.
Persian preverbs, referred to as "āndar" or "dar", are:
Pre-verbs can modify the procedure attribute of the verbs and the infinitives, but they do not change their objective attribute:
.او کتابی داشت (static attribute)
U ketābi dāsht.
.او کتابی را برداشت (dynamic attribute)
U ketabi bar dāsht.
The Pre-verb is normally positioned ahead of the verb. If the verb is composed of two separable components, the pre-verb is positioned ahead of the second component. The Pre-verb can be positioned at the end of the sentence, owing to versification requirements:
از کارِ خير عزمِ تو هرگز نگشت باز
هرگز زِ راه بازنگشتهست هيچ تير
Manuchehri (11th - 12th Century AD)
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