Definitions

National

National

[nash-uh-nl, nash-nuhl]
Audubon Society, National, one of the oldest and best-known U.S. environmental organizations; founded 1886 by George Cird Grinnell and named for John James Audubon. The nonprofit organization, which has a membership of 550,000, operates 100 wildlife sanctuaries and nature centers, as well as camps and other educational programs. Current high-priority projects include protection for wetlands, ancient forests of the Pacific Northwest, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, and the Platte River, an important migratory bird stopover. Its publications include American Bird and Audubon, the society's official magazine.
Urban League, National, voluntary nonpartisan community service agency, founded in 1910, whose goal is to help end racial segregation and discrimination in the United States, especially toward African Americans, and to help economically and socially disadvantaged groups to share equally in every aspect of American life. It provides direct service in the areas of employment, housing, education, social welfare, health, family planning, mental retardation, law and consumer affairs, youth and student affairs, labor affairs, veterans affairs, and community and minority business development. Considered more conservative in outlook than the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the National Urban League has 50,000 members in 115 affiliates in 34 states and the District of Columbia.
Consumers' League, National, organization designed to promote better conditions among workers by encouraging the purchase of articles made and sold under improved working conditions. The movement started in England (1890); the U.S. group was founded (1899) by Florence Kelley and her followers. The league undertook to investigate factories and to educate consumers in purchasing habits. For many years the league used a label for goods which had passed inspection, and many consumers learned to purchase only those goods thus labeled. Many of the objectives of the league became law, e.g., shorter hours, minimum wages, payment for overtime, and the abolition in most states of child labor.

Any of the 10 former territories that the Republic of South Africa designated as “homelands” for the country's black African population during the mid- to late 20th century. Also known as South Africa homelands, Bantu homelands, or black states, they were created under the white-dominated government's policy of apartheid. They were Gazankulu, KwaZulu, Lebowa, KwaNdebele, KaNgwane, Qwaqwa, Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda, and Ciskei. The last four were declared “independent” by the South African government, but their independence was never internationally recognized. Although the creation of Bantustans was rooted in earlier acts, the Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act of 1970 defined blacks living throughout South Africa as legal citizens only of the homelands designated for their particular ethnic groups—thereby stripping them of their South African citizenship. Between the 1960s and '80s, the South African government continuously removed black people still living in “white areas” of South Africa and forcibly relocated them to the Bantustans. In 1994, after the end of apartheid, the South African government created nine new South African provinces, which included both former provinces and former Bantustans.

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Area set aside by a national government for the preservation of its natural environment. Most national parks are kept in their natural state. Those in the U.S. and Canada emphasize land and wildlife preservation, those in Britain focus mainly on the land, and those in African nations focus primarily on animals. The world's first national park, Yellowstone, was established in the U.S. by Pres. Ulysses S. Grant in 1872. Canada's first national park, Banff, was established in 1885. Japan and Mexico established their first national parks in the 1930s; Britain's national parks date to 1949. The U.S. National Park Service, established in 1916, now also manages national monuments, preserves, recreation areas, and seashores, as well as lakeshores, historic sites, parkways, scenic trails, and battlefields. Seealso national forest.

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In the U.S., any of numerous areas reserved by the federal government for the protection of objects or places of historical, scientific, or prehistoric interest. They include natural physical features, remains of Indian cultures, and places of historical importance. In 1906 Pres. Theodore Roosevelt established the first national monument, Devils Tower, in Wyoming. They are administered by the National Park Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior.

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Set of principles and methods used to measure a country's income and production. There are two ways of measuring national economic activity: the expenditure approach, which measures the money value of the total output of goods and services in a given period (usually a year); and the income approach, which measures the total income derived from economic activity after allowing for capital consumption. The most commonly used indicator of national output is the gross domestic product (GDP). National income may be derived from gross national product (GNP) by making allowances for certain non-income costs included in the GNP, such as indirect taxes, subsidies, and depreciation. National income thus calculated represents the aggregate income of the owners of the factors of production; it is the sum of wages, salaries, profits, interest, dividends, rent, and so on. The data accumulated for calculating the GDP and national income may be manipulated in various ways to show various relationships in the economy. Common uses of the data include breakdowns of GDP according to type of product, breakdowns of national income by type of income, and analyses of the sources of financing (e.g., personal savings, company funds, or national deficits).

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Administration of territory by an occupying power. The definition does not cover military forces stationed in neutral or friendly territory that share administrative responsibilities with local civil authorities. Military government must also be distinguished from military law and martial law. Its control lasts until it either gives up power voluntarily or is overthrown. The term is popularly used for rule of a country by its own military, whether it comes to power through a coup d'état or is the legitimate governing body.

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Forecast of governmental expenditures and revenues for the ensuing fiscal year. In modern industrial economies, the budget is the key instrument for the execution of government economic policies. Because government budgets may promote or retard economic growth in certain areas of the economy and because views about priorities in government spending differ widely, government budgets are the focus of competing political interests. In the U.S. the federal budget is prepared by the president's Office of Management and Budget. The U.S. Congress has considerable input, influencing the budget's preparation through negotiations with the president and considering it in detail on its official submission to Congress.

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Political system by which a body of people is administered and regulated. Different levels of government typically have different responsibilities. The level closest to those governed is local government. Regional governments comprise a grouping of individual communities. National governments nominally control all the territory within internationally recognized borders and have responsibilities not shared by their subnational counterparts. Most governments exercise executive, legislative (see legislature), and judicial (see judiciary) powers and split or combine them in various ways. Some also control the religious affairs of their people; others avoid any involvement with religion. Political forms at the national level determine the powers exercised at the subnational levels; these have included autocracy, democracy, fascism, monarchy, oligarchy, plutocracy (government by the wealthy), theocracy, and totalitarianism.

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In the U.S., any of numerous forest areas under federal supervision for the purposes of conserving water, timber, wildlife, fish, and other renewable resources and providing public recreation areas. Administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service, in the early 21st century the forests numbered 155 and occupied 352,000 sq mi (911,700 sq km) in 40 states and Puerto Rico. They were founded in 1891 as a system of forest reserves and were renamed national forests in 1907. Seealso Gifford Pinchot.

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or public debt

Total indebtedness of a government, especially as evidenced by securities issued to investors. The national debt grows whenever the government operates a budget deficit—that is, when government spending exceeds government revenues in a year. To finance its debt, the government can issue securities such as bonds or treasury bills. The level of national debt varies from country to country, from less than 10percnt of the gross domestic product (GDP) to more than double it. Public borrowing is thought to have an inflationary effect on the economy and thus is often used during recessions to stimulate consumption, investment, and employment. Seealso deficit financing; John Maynard Keynes.

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In the U.S., any commercial bank chartered and supervised by the federal government and operated by private individuals. National banks were created during the Civil War under the National Bank Act of 1863 to combat financial instability caused by state banks and to help finance the war effort. When these banks purchased federal bonds and deposited them with the comptroller of the currency, they were permitted to circulate national bank notes, thereby creating a stable, uniform national currency. After the Civil War, the government began to retire the bonds issued during the war, which reduced the number of national bank notes that could be issued. Concern over the inflexibility of national bank notes led to the formation of the Federal Reserve System in 1913, which all national banks were required to join. The U.S. Treasury assumed the obligation of issuing national bank notes in 1935, effectively ending the issue of money by private commercial banks.

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National park, southwestern Utah, U.S. It covers an area of 229 sq mi (593 sq km); its principal feature is Zion Canyon, which was named by the Mormons who discovered it in 1858. Part of the area was first set aside as the Mukuntuweap National Monument in 1909. Enlarged and renamed Zion National Monument in 1918, it was established as a national park in 1919. Zion Canyon was carved by the Virgin River and is about 15 mi (24 km) long and 0.5 mi (0.8 km) deep. Rocky domes dot the canyon walls, which contain an abundant fossil record. Excavation has yielded evidence that prehistoric peoples once inhabited the area.

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National preserve, central California, U.S. Made a national park in 1890, it encompasses 761,320 ac (308,106 ha) in the Sierra Nevada range. Its many features include giant redwood groves with trees thousands of years old, Yosemite Falls, Bridalveil Fall (620 ft [189 m]), and huge domes and peaks; the greatest of these is El Capitan, a granite buttress that is 3,604 ft (1,098 m) high.

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National park, southeastern British Columbia, Canada. It occupies 507 sq mi (1,313 sq km) of the western and central slopes of the Rocky Mountains and is adjacent to Banff and Kootenay national parks. Known for the Burgess Shale archaeological site, geologic treasures, diverse wildlife, and scenic landscape, it was established as a national park in 1886. Features include glaciers, ice fields, steep mountains, and broad valleys. Black and grizzly bears, moose, mule deer, wapiti (elk), and mountain goats inhabit the park.

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National preserve in northwestern Wyoming, southern Montana, and eastern Idaho, U.S. The oldest national park in the U.S. (and in the world), it was established by the U.S. Congress in 1872; it covers 3,468 sq mi (8,983 sq km). The Gallatin, Absaroka, and Teton mountain ranges extend into it. Yellowstone has unusual geologic features, including fossil forests and eroded basaltic lava flows. It also has 10,000 hot springs, which erupt as steam vents, fumaroles, and geysers. Old Faithful, the park's most famous geyser, erupts every 33 to 120 minutes. There are many lakes and rivers, including Yellowstone Lake, Shoshone Lake, the Snake River, and the Yellowstone River. In 1988 an extensive series of forest fires temporarily laid waste to large areas of the park.

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National monument, north-central Arizona, U.S. Situated along the Little Colorado River, the monument was established in 1924 and comprises more than 800 red sandstone pueblos built during the 11th–13th centuries. It has an area of 55 sq mi (142 sq km).

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National park, southeastern Alaska, U.S. Proclaimed a national monument in 1978, the area underwent boundary and name changes in 1980. The largest park in the U.S. national park system, it has an area of 12,318,000 ac (4,987,000 ha). At the convergence of the Chugach, Wrangell, and Saint Elias mountain ranges, it includes the largest assemblage of glaciers and the greatest collection of peaks above 16,000 ft (4,880 m) on the continent.

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Park, western Canada. Situated between Athabasca and Great Slave lakes, it was established in 1922; it occupies an area of 17,300 sq mi (44,807 sq km). The world's largest park, it is a vast region of forests and plains, crossed by the Peace River and dotted with lakes. The habitat of the largest remaining herd of wood buffalo (bison) on the North American continent, as well as of bear, caribou, moose, and beaver, it also provides nesting grounds for the endangered whooping crane.

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National park, southwestern South Dakota, U.S. Established in 1903 to preserve limestone caverns and unspoiled prairie grassland in the Black Hills, it covers an area of 28,292 ac (11,449 ha). Its caves contain 83 mi (134 km) of explored passages and have beautiful rock formations called boxwork, formed by calcite deposition in unique patterns. The park is also a wildlife refuge.

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Mountain recreational area, western Canada. Located in southwestern Alberta, it became a national park in 1895. It covers 203 sq mi (525 sq km). It adjoins the U.S. border and Glacier National Park in the U.S.; the two parks together compose the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, dedicated in 1932.

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National monument, north-central Arizona, U.S. Established in 1915 and covering an area of 3 sq mi (8 sq km), it preserves more than 300 pre-Columbian dwellings built by the Pueblo Indians in shallow caves on the canyon walls. Main occupancy was from AD 1000 to 1200.

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National park, northern Minnesota, U.S. Located along the Canadian border, the park was established in 1975 and was named for the mostly French-Canadian fur-trading frontiersmen (voyageurs) of the 18th–19th centuries. It occupies an area of 217,892 ac (88,178 ha) and consists of a network of streams and lakes, the largest of which is Rainy Lake.

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Conservation area, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Covering 14,696 acres (5,947 hectares), it has steep mountains, white beaches, and coral reefs. Though most of the tree cover was removed for sugarcane cultivation in the 17th–18th century, the land has reverted to forest. Some 100 species of birds and the only native land mammal, the bat, can be found there. It has remains of Arawak Indian villages.

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National monument, central Arizona, U.S. Located in the Verde River valley, the 43-ac (17-ha) park was established in 1939. Its outstanding feature is the ruin of a 110-room Sinagua Indian pueblo that was occupied by three cultural groups from AD 1100 to 1450. The structure was excavated in 1933–34 and partially rebuilt.

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Park, southeastern Kenya, east of Mount Kilimanjaro. Established in 1948, it covers 8,036 sq mi (20,812 sq km) and is Kenya's largest national park. For administrative purposes, it is divided into two smaller units: Tsavo East and Tsavo West. The park comprises semiarid plains covered by dormant vegetation (which blooms after a light rain) and acacia and baobab trees. Wildlife includes elephants, lions, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, hartebeests, and hundreds of bird species. Poaching and brush fires are constant problems.

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Cave system, Utah, U.S. Located on the northwestern slope of Mount Timpanogos (11,750 ft [3,581 m]), the second highest peak of the Wasatch Mountains, it was established in 1922; it occupies 0.4 sq mi (1 sq km). It centres around a three-chambered limestone cave noted for its pink and white crystal-filigreed walls and tinted formations.

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Preserve, west-central North Dakota, U.S. Established in 1947, it commemorates Pres. Theodore Roosevelt's interest in the American West. The 110-sq-mi (285-sq-km) park contains several sites along the Little Missouri River, including a petrified forest, Wind Canyon, eroded badlands, and Roosevelt's Elkhorn Ranch cabin.

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Preserve, north-central Arizona, U.S. Established in 1930, the monument covers 5 sq mi (13 sq km) and contains the brilliant-hued cinder cone of an extinct volcano that erupted circa 1064. It rises 1,000 ft (300 m) and has a crater 400 ft (120 m) deep and 1,280 ft (390 m) in diameter. The tract contains numerous lava flows, fumaroles, and lava beds.

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Historic site in New York Harbor, New York and New Jersey, U.S. Covering 58 ac (23 ha), it includes the Statue of Liberty (on Liberty Island [formerly Bedloe's Island]) and nearby Ellis Island. The colossal statue, Liberty Enlightening the World, was sculpted by Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi and dedicated in 1886. This 305-ft (93-m) statue of a woman holding a tablet and upraised torch was given to the U.S. by France and commemorates the friendship of the two countries; a plaque at the pedestal's entrance is inscribed with the sonnet “The New Colossus” by Emma Lazarus. The Statue of Liberty was declared a national monument in 1924 and a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1984; Ellis Island, containing the Ellis Island Immigration Museum, was added to the monument in 1965.

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Park, southeastern Alaska, U.S. Located on Baranof Island in the Gulf of Alaska, it was established in 1910 as a national monument; a national park since 1972, it covers 107 ac (43 ha). It contains the ruins of the Indian fortress in which the Tlingit Indians made their last stand against Russian settlers in 1804. It also has a collection of old Haida Indian totem poles and the oldest intact Russian-American building in the U.S.

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National park, Blue Ridge Mountains, northern Virginia, U.S. Formed in 1935, the park consists of 193,537 ac (78,322 ha) and is noted for its scenery, which affords some of the widest views in the eastern states. It is heavily forested with hardwoods and conifers; wildlife includes deer, foxes, and numerous birds.

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Wildlife refuge, north-central Tanzania. Established in 1951, the park covers 5,700 sq mi (14,763 sq km). An international tourist attraction, it is the only place in Africa where vast land-animal migrations still take place. More than 35 species of plains animals, more than 350 species of birds, and lions, leopards, elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, giraffes, and baboons inhabit the park. Poaching is a major problem.

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National park, Sierra Nevada range, California, U.S. The park, with an area of 629 sq mi (1,629 sq km), was set aside in 1890 to protect groves of big trees (Sequoiadendron giganteum) that are among the world's largest and oldest living things. The largest tree in the park is thought to be 2,300–2,700 years old. Kings Canyon National Park adjoins Sequoia park to the north; Mount Whitney is on the eastern boundary.

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National monument, western Nebraska, U.S. Established in 1919, it has an area of 5 sq mi (13 sq km). Its focus is a large bluff that rises 800 ft (244 m) above the North Platte River and was a prominent landmark on the Oregon Trail. A museum at the base of the bluff highlights the history of the pioneer travelers.

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Mountain and desert region, southern Arizona, U.S. Established as a national monument in 1933, it became a national park in 1994. It has a total area of 143 sq mi (370 sq km). Its two districts, separated by the city of Tucson, contain forests of saguaro cactus. Plant life also includes paloverde, mesquite, and ocotillo.

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National Monument, northeastern Alabama, U.S. Located south of the Alabama-Tennessee border, the monument constitutes part of a cavern that was discovered circa 1953. The cave is about 210 ft (64 m) long, 107 ft (33 m) wide, and 26 ft (8 m) high. It contains an almost continuous record of human habitation dating to at least 7000 BC. The national monument was established in 1961.

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British theatre company. It was formed in 1962 as the National Theatre with Laurence Olivier as director (1962–73) and included many actors from the Old Vic company. In 1976 the company moved from London's Old Vic Theatre to a newly constructed three-theatre complex on the southern bank of the Thames. In 1988 Queen Elizabeth II gave the company permission to add “Royal” to its name. Partly subsidized by the state, the theatre presents a mixed classic and modern repertoire. Its directors have included Peter Hall (1973–88), Richard Eyre (1988–97), Sir Trevor Nunn (1997–2003), and Nicholas Hytner (from 2003).

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National park, northwestern corner of California, U.S. It was established in 1968, expanded in 1978, and designated a World Heritage site in 1980. It preserves virgin groves of ancient redwood trees, including the world's tallest, 367.8 ft (112.1 m) high. It also includes 40 mi (65 km) of scenic Pacific coastline. It covers an area of 172 sq mi (445 sq km), including land in three state parks.

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Natural area, southern Utah, U.S. Located on the Navajo Indian Reservation near the Utah-Arizona border, the monument was established in 1910 and occupies 160 acres (65 hectares). It centres on a rainbow-shaped bridge of pink sandstone 290 ft (88 m) above a creek that winds toward the Colorado River. The bridge is 275 ft (84 m) long and is one of the world's largest natural bridges. Embedded among canyons, the area is accessible only on foot, by horseback, or by boat on Lake Powell.

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National park, central Ontario, Canada. Established in 1971, it is Ontario's largest national park, covering 725 sq mi (1,878 sq km). It includes areas of rugged Canadian Shield wilderness as well as 50 mi (80 km) of the shoreline of northeastern Lake Superior, with rocky islets and coves and spectacular cliffs. Excavations of prehistoric Indian remains have been made. Wildlife includes timber wolf, black bear, mink, lynx, white-tailed deer, moose, and woodland caribou. The park has vast forests of white and black spruce, jack pine, poplar, and birch.

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Park, central Saskatchewan, Canada. Its main entrance is northwest of the city of Prince Albert. Established in 1927, it has an area of 1,496 sq mi (3,875 sq km) and is mostly woodland and lakes, interlaced with streams and nature trails. It is a sanctuary for birds, moose, elk, caribou, and bears.

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National park, eastern Arizona, U.S. Established as a national monument in 1906 and as a national park in 1962, it has an area of 146 sq mi (378 sq km). It features extensive exhibits of petrified wood in several “forest” areas, fossilized leaves, plants, and broken logs, and the Painted Desert. Other features include petroglyphs and ancient Pueblo Indian ruins.

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National monument, southwestern Arizona, U.S., at the Mexican border. It was established in 1937. With an area of 330,689 acres (133,929 hectares), it preserves segments of the mountainous Sonoran Desert and is named for the organ-pipe cactus. Wildlife includes Gila monsters, antelope, coyotes, and a variety of birds.

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National monument, southwestern Oregon, U.S. It is a single cave comprising a series of chambers joined by subterranean corridors on four levels. Located in the Siskiyou Mountains near the California border, the monument was established in 1909. It has an area of 488 acres (197 hectares). It contains many stalagmites, stalactites, and other formations.

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National park, northwestern Washington, U.S. Established in 1968 to preserve mountain snowfields, glaciers, alpine meadows, and lakes in the northern part of the Cascade Range, it covers an area of 504,781 acres (204,278 hectares). The Ross Lake National Recreation Area separates the park into two sections, the northern unit extending to the Canadian border and the southern unit adjoining the Lake Chelan National Recreation Area.

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National monument, northern Arizona, U.S. Covering 360 acres (146 hectares), it comprises three historic cliff dwellings: Betatakin (Navajo: “Ledge House”), Keet Seel (“Broken Pottery”), and Inscription House, among the best-preserved and most elaborate cliff dwellings known. The largest, Keet Seel, was first discovered by whites in 1895; the three sites were made a national monument in 1909. The dwellings were the principal home of the Kayenta Ancestral Pueblo (Anasazi) circa 1250–1300. The 135 rooms of Betatakin are tucked into a cliffside alcove 452 ft (138 m) high and 370 ft (113 m) wide. Also situated in a cliff alcove are the 160 rooms and 6 kivas (ceremonial houses) of Keet Seel. Inscription House (closed to the public) has 74 rooms.

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National monument, southeastern Utah, U.S. Comprising three large natural bridges carved by two winding streams, it was established in 1908. The largest bridge, Sipapu, is 222 ft (68 m) high and spans 261 ft (80 m). Pictographs were carved on another of the bridges, Kachina, by early cliff dwellers.

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or Nazism

Totalitarian movement led by Adolf Hitler as head of Germany's Nazi Party (1920–45). Its roots lay in the tradition of Prussian militarism and discipline and German Romanticism, which celebrated a mythic past and proclaimed the rights of the exceptional individual over all rules and laws. Its ideology was shaped by Hitler's beliefs in German racial superiority and the dangers of communism. It rejected liberalism, democracy, the rule of law, and human rights, stressing instead the subordination of the individual to the state and the necessity of strict obedience to leaders. It emphasized the inequality of individuals and “races” and the right of the strong to rule the weak. Politically, National Socialism favoured rearmament, reunification of the German areas of Europe, expansion into non-German areas, and the purging of “undesirables,” especially Jews. Seealso fascism.

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U.S. agency that advises the president on domestic, foreign, and military policies related to national security. With the Central Intelligence Agency, it was established by the 1947 National Security Act. It provides the White House with a foreign-policy-making instrument independent of the State Department. It has four members—the president, vice president, and secretaries of state and defense—and its staff is headed by the national security adviser.

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U.S. intelligence agency responsible for cryptographic and communications intelligence and security. Established in 1952 by a presidential directive (not by law), it has operated largely without Congressional oversight. Its director has always been a general or an admiral. Its mission includes the protection and formulation of codes, ciphers, and other cryptology as well as the interception, analysis, and solution of coded transmissions. It conducts research into all forms of electronic transmission and operates listening posts around the world for the interception of signals. Though its budget and the number of its employees is secret, the NSA is acknowledged to be far larger than the Central Intelligence Agency, possessing financial resources that rival those of the world's largest companies.

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Governing organization for the sport of shooting with rifles and pistols. It was founded in Britain in 1860. The U.S. organization, formed in 1871, has a membership of some four million. Both the British and the U.S. groups sponsor regional and national shooting competitions and offer gun safety programs. The U.S. NRA, one of the most powerful political lobbies in the country, has vigorously opposed many legislative proposals for the control of firearms.

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(1933–35) U.S. government agency established to stimulate business recovery during the Great Depression. As part of the National Industrial Recovery Act (1933), the NRA established codes to eliminate unfair trade practices, reduce unemployment, and set minimum wages and maximum hours. The U.S. Supreme Court invalidated the act in 1935 because it gave quasi-legislative powers to the executive branch. Many of its provisions appeared in subsequent legislation.

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U.S. women's rights organization. It was founded in 1966 by Betty Friedan to promote equal rights for women, particularly in the area of employment. With some 500,000 members (both women and men) and 550 chapters, it addresses, through lobbying and litigation, issues such as child care, pregnancy leave, and abortion and pension rights. In the 1970s its major concern was passage of the Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution, though the amendment failed in 1982. NOW has been more successful at the state level, where it has lobbied for state equal rights amendments and comparable-worth (equal pay for equal work) legislation.

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U.S. government agency charged with administering the National Labor Relations Act (1935). The three-member NLRB, appointed by the president, organizes elections to determine whether employees wish to be represented by a labour union in collective bargaining and monitors labour practices by employers and unions. It does not initiate investigations; its involvement must be sought by employers, individuals, or unions. Though it lacks enforcement power for its orders, it can prosecute cases in court.

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U.S. government agency that conducts or supports biomedical research. It is made up of numerous specialized institutes (e.g., National Cancer Institute; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Institute on Aging; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; and National Institute of Mental Health). Part of the Department of Health and Human Services, it also trains health researchers; disseminates information; and maintains other offices and divisions, the National Library of Medicine (the foremost source of medical information in the U.S.), and several research centres.

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Museum in Washington, D.C., part of the Smithsonian Institution. It was founded in 1937 when Andrew W. Mellon donated his collection of European paintings to the U.S. He also donated funds to construct the gallery's Neoclassical building, opened in 1941. Now known as the West Building, it is connected by plaza and underground concourse to the East Building, designed by I.M. Pei (completed 1978). The museum houses an extensive collection of U.S. and European paintings, sculpture, decorative arts, and graphic arts from the 12th to 21st centuries; especially well represented are works by Italian Renaissance, 17th-century Dutch, and 18th- and 19th-century French artists.

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Voluntary association of U.S. teachers, administrators, and other educators associated with elementary and secondary schools and colleges and universities. Founded in 1857 as the National Teachers Assn., it is among the world's largest professional organizations. Operating much like a labour union, it represents its members through numerous state and local affiliates. It seeks to improve the schools and working conditions, advance the cause of public education, promote federal legislation, and sponsor research.

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Mexican government-financed university in Mexico City, founded in 1551. The original university building, dating from 1584, was demolished in 1910, and the university was moved to a new campus in 1954. Between 1553 and 1867 the university was controlled by the Roman Catholic church. After 1867, independent professional schools of law, medicine, engineering, and architecture were established by the government. The university was given administrative autonomy in 1929. It offers a broad range of programs in all major academic and professional subjects.

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in full National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

Oldest and largest U.S. civil rights organization. It was founded in 1909 to secure political, educational, social, and economic equality for African Americans; W.E.B. Du Bois and Ida B. Wells were among its 60 founders. Headquartered in Baltimore, Md., the NAACP has undertaken litigation, political activity, and public education programs. In 1939 it organized the independent Legal Defense and Education Fund as its legal arm, which sued for school desegregation in Brown v. Board of Education (1954). During World War II it pressed for desegregation of the armed forces, which was achieved in 1948. In 1967 its general counsel, Thurgood Marshall, became the U.S. Supreme Court's first African American justice.

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in full National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Independent U.S. government agency established in 1958 for research and development of vehicles and activities for aeronautics and space exploration. Its goals include improving human understanding of the universe, the solar system, and Earth and establishing a permanent human presence in space. NASA, previously the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), was created largely in response to the Soviet Union's launch of Sputnik in 1957. Its organization was well under way in 1961, when Pres. John F. Kennedy proposed that the U.S. put a man on the Moon by the end of the 1960s (see Apollo). Later unmanned programs (e.g., Viking, Mariner, Voyager, Galileo) explored other planets and interplanetary space, and orbiting observatories (e.g., the Hubble Space Telescope) have studied the cosmos. NASA also developed and launched various satellites with Earth applications, such as Landsat and communications and weather satellites. It planned and developed the space shuttle and led the development and construction of the International Space Station.

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National woodland, northern California, U.S. A virgin stand of coastal redwoods, it covers an area of 554 acres (224 hectares) near the Pacific coast, northwest of San Francisco. Some of the trees are more than 300 ft (90 m) high, 15 ft (5 m) in diameter, and 2,000 years old. The park, established in 1908, was named in honour of the naturalist John Muir.

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Colossal sculpture, Black Hills, southwestern South Dakota, U.S. Sculptures of the heads of presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln are carved on the granite face of the mountain, which is 5,725 ft (1,745 m) high. The four heads, each about 60 ft (18 m) high, represent, respectively, the nation's independence, democratic process, leadership in world affairs, and equality. The memorial was dedicated in 1927. Work on it was carried out during 1927–41 under the direction of Gutzon Borglum.

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National monument, central Arizona, U.S. Situated in the Verde River valley, it occupies an area of 2.6 sq mi (6.7 sq km). Declared a national monument in 1906, it is the site of the country's best-preserved pre-Columbian Pueblo Indian cliff dwellings. The “castle” is a five-story, 20-room adobe brick structure, dating from circa AD 1100, built into the cliff face about 80 ft (24 m) above the valley floor. To the northeast is Montezuma Well, a large sinkhole rimmed with communal dwellings.

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Mexican government-financed university in Mexico City, founded in 1551. The original university building, dating from 1584, was demolished in 1910, and the university was moved to a new campus in 1954. Between 1553 and 1867 the university was controlled by the Roman Catholic church. After 1867, independent professional schools of law, medicine, engineering, and architecture were established by the government. The university was given administrative autonomy in 1929. It offers a broad range of programs in all major academic and professional subjects.

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National park, southwestern Colorado, U.S. It was established in 1906 to preserve prehistoric Indian cliff dwellings. Occupying a high tableland area of 52,085 acres (21,078 hectares), it contains hundreds of pueblo ruins up to 13 centuries old. The most striking are multistoried apartments built under overhanging cliffs. Cliff Palace, the largest, was excavated in 1909 and contains hundreds of rooms, including kivas, the circular ceremonial chambers of the Pueblo Indians.

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National park, southwest-central Kentucky, U.S. The park, authorized in 1926 and established in 1941, occupies a surface area of 82 sq mi (212 sq km) that covers a system of limestone caverns. In 1972 a passage was discovered linking the Mammoth Cave and the Flint Ridge Cave System; the explored underground passages have a combined length of some 329 mi (530 km). The caves are inhabited by various animals that have undergone evolutionary adaptation to the dark, including cave crickets, blindfish, and blind crayfish. Mummified Indian bodies, possibly of pre-Columbian origin, have been found in the caves.

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Region, northern California, U.S. It features recent lava flows and related volcanic formations, including deep chasms, chimneys, and cinder cones that rise to 300 ft (90 m) in height. The main battle sites of the Modoc Indian war (1872–73) are located within the monument, which occupies an area of 72 sq mi (186 sq km). It was dedicated as a national monument in 1925.

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National park, southern Alaska, U.S. Located on the western shore of Cook Inlet, it was proclaimed a national monument in 1978 and a national park in 1980. Its total area is 3,653,000 acres (1,478,300 hectares). Lake Clark, more than 40 mi (65 km) long, is the largest of its glacial lakes; it feeds rivers that provide the most important spawning ground for red salmon in North America. The park includes glaciers, waterfalls, and active volcanoes.

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National park, South Africa. Located in the northeastern part of the country on the Mozambique border, it was created as a game sanctuary in 1898 and in 1926 became a national park named for Paul Kruger. It covers an area of 7,523 sq mi (19,485 sq km) and contains six rivers. It has a wide variety of wildlife, including elephants, lions, and cheetahs. In December 2002 it became part of Africa's largest game park when Kruger National Park was joined with Limpopo National Park in Mozambique and Gonarezhou National Park in Zimbabwe to form the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park.

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National park, southeastern British Columbia, Canada. Centred around the Kootenay River, the park occupies the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains, adjacent to Banff and Yoho national parks. Established as a national park in 1920, it covers 543 sq mi (1,406 sq km). From prehistoric times, the area was a major north-south travel route. Pictographs indicate that humans settled near the hot springs 11,000–12,000 years ago. The park's scenery is characterized by snowcapped peaks, glaciers, cascades, canyons, and verdant valleys. Wildlife includes wapiti (elk), moose, deer, bighorn sheep, and mountain goats.

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National park, northwestern Alaska, U.S. Located north of the Arctic Circle, it was made a national monument in 1978 and a national park in 1980. Occupying an area of 1,750,421 acres (708,370 hectares), it preserves the Kobuk River valley, including the Kobuk and Salmon rivers, forest lands, and the Great Kobuk Sand Dunes. Archaeological sites reveal more than 10,000 years of human habitation. It protects caribou migration routes; other wildlife include grizzly and black bears, foxes, moose, and wolves.

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National park, Sierra Nevadas, south-central California, U.S. Occupying an area of 722 sq mi (1,870 sq km), it is administered along with the adjacent Sequoia National Park. Established in 1940, it contains giant sequoia trees. Its most spectacular feature is Kings Canyon on the Kings River, which was carved by glacial action.

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National park, southern Alaska, U.S. Located on the southern coast of the Kenai Peninsula and established as a national monument in 1978, it became a national park in 1980. Its area of 670,000 acres (271,100 hectares) includes the Harding Icefield and its outflowing glaciers as well as coastal fjords. The park's wildlife includes sea otters, seals, and seabirds.

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National park, southwestern Alaska, U.S., at the head of the Alaska Peninsula. Occupying an area of 4,090,000 acres (1,655,000 hectares), it was proclaimed a national monument in 1918 after the eruption of Novarupta in 1912. The eruption converted the valley into a wasteland known as the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, and the volcanic crater later became a lake. The park abounds in wildlife, including large numbers of brown and grizzly bears.

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National park, south-central Zambia. Located west of Lusaka, it was established in 1950. It occupies an area of 8,650 sq mi (22,400 sq km) and consists of a vast plateau, situated along the middle reaches of the Kafue River. The park is noted for its lush vegetation and abundant wildlife, including hippopotamuses, zebras, elephants, black rhinoceroses, and lions. Safaris are conducted on foot.

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National park, southeastern California, U.S. Situated on the border between the Mojave and Colorado deserts, it has an area of 1,241 sq mi (3,214 sq km). It was designated a national monument in 1936 and a national park in 1994. It is noted for its variety of desert plant life, including the Joshua tree, creosote bush, and Mojave yucca. Its fauna include coyotes, bobcats, and tarantulas.

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National monument, southwestern South Dakota, U.S. Established in 1908, it occupies an area of 2 sq mi (5 sq km). It is noted for its limestone caverns, a series of chambers joined by narrow passages. The known length of the caverns is 77 mi (124 km).

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National park, western Alberta, Can. Located on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, it was established in 1907. It occupies 4,200 sq mi (10,878 sq km), including the Athabasca River valley and the surrounding mountains. It encompasses part of the great Columbia Icefield, the meltwaters of which feed rivers that flow to the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic oceans. The park's wildlife includes bear, elk, moose, caribou, and cougar.

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or Congress Party

Broadly based political party of India, founded in 1885. The Congress Party was a moderate reform party until 1917, when it was taken over by its “extremist” Home Rule wing (see Bal Gangadhar Tilak). In the 1920s and '30s, under Mohandas K. Gandhi, it promoted noncooperation to protest the feebleness of the constitutional reforms of 1919. During World War II, the party announced that India would not support the war until granted complete independence. In 1947 an Indian independence bill became law, and in 1950 the constitution took effect. Jawaharlal Nehru dominated the party from 1951 to 1964. The Indian National Congress formed most of India's governments from 1947 to 1996, but at the end of the 20th century, its support plummeted. After several years out of power, it returned to government in 2004.

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National monument, southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah, U.S. Established in 1923 and covering 785 acres (318 hectares), it consists of six groups of pre-Columbian Indian ruins, whose towers are excellent examples of Pueblo Indian architecture of the period AD 1100–1300. Hovenweep is a Ute Indian word meaning “deserted valley.”

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Memorial, southeastern Nebraska, U.S. Established in 1936 as a memorial to the hardships of pioneer life, it is the site of the first claim under the Homestead Act of 1862 and has exhibits tracing the development of the Homestead Movement. It occupies 163 acres (66 hectares) and includes a homestead log cabin.

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National preserve, southeastern shore of Hawaii island, U.S. Established in 1916, it occupies an area of 358 sq mi (927 sq km) and includes the active volcanoes Mauna Loa and Kilauea, 25 mi (40 km) apart. Other highlights are Kau Desert, an area of lava formations near Kilauea, and a tree-fern forest that receives nearly 100 in. (2,500 mm) of annual rainfall.

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National park, eastern Maui, Hawaii, U.S. Established in 1960, it occupies an area of 28,655 acres (11,597 hectares). Its central feature is Haleakala Crater, the world's largest dormant volcanic crater, more than 2,500 ft (762 m) deep and about 20 mi (32 km) in circumference. The crater floor, covering more than 19 sq mi (49 sq km), has areas of forest, desert, and meadow. It is the site of Science City, a research-observatory complex operated by the U.S. Department of Defense and the Universities of Hawaii and Michigan.

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National park, western Texas, U.S. Established in 1972, it occupies an area of 86,416 acres (34,998 hectares) east of El Paso. It is centred on two peaks: Guadalupe Peak, which reaches 8,751 ft (2,667 m), and El Capitan, which rises to 8,078 ft (2,462 m). The park is an area of great geologic interest, with a major Permian limestone fossil reef.

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Natural area, south-central Colorado, U.S. It lies at the eastern edge of the San Luis Valley along the western base of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Established in 1932 as a national monument, the 150,000-acre (60,700-hectare) region contains some of the highest inland sand dunes in the U.S., with changing crests that rise to 700 ft (215 m). In 2000 the Great Sand Dunes National Preserve was created, and after much land acquisition the monument officially became a national park in 2004.

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National preserve, northwestern Wyoming, U.S. In 1950 most of Jackson Hole National Monument (a fertile valley) was incorporated into the park, which was established in 1929 and now covers 484 sq mi (1,254 sq km). The snow-covered peaks of its Teton Range are 7,000 ft (2,100 m) above the nearby Snake River valley.

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Historic site, northeastern corner of Minnesota, U.S. Located on Lake Superior near the Canadian border, it was designated a national historic site in 1951 and a national monument in 1958. It covers a 9-mi (14-km) overland trail from Lake Superior's northern shore that bypassed the obstacles to early canoe travel. Used by early explorers, the portage marked the end of travel on the Great Lakes and the beginning of the interior river route. The portage trail now bisects the reservation of the Grand Portage tribe of the Minnesota Chippewa Indians.

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National preserve, British Columbia, Canada. Lying in the heart of the Selkirk Mountains, within the northern bend of the Columbia River, it was established in 1886; it occupies an area of 521 sq mi (1,349 sq km). Snowcapped peaks flanked by ice fields and glaciers form an alpine panorama. Outstanding features are the Illecillewaet Glacier and the Nakimu Caves in the Cougar Valley.

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Natural area, southeastern Alaska, U.S. Located on the Gulf of Alaska, it was proclaimed a national monument in 1925, established as a national park and preserve in 1980, and designated a World Heritage site in 1992. It covers 5,040 sq mi (13,053 sq km). It includes Glacier Bay, much of Mount Fairweather, and the U.S. portion of the Alsek River. Among its great tidewater glaciers is Muir Glacier, which rises 265 ft (81 m) above the water and is nearly 2 mi (3 km) wide. The park also includes a dramatic range of plant species and such wildlife as brown and black bears, mountain goats, whales, seals, and eagles.

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National preserve, southwestern New Mexico, U.S. Located in the Gila National Forest near the headwaters of the Gila River, it contains groups of small but well-preserved Pueblo Indian dwellings in natural cavities of an overhanging cliff 150 ft (45 m) high. The dwellings were inhabited circa AD 100–1300. Established in 1907, the monument occupies 533 acres (216 hectares).

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National monument, eastern Virginia, U.S. Established in 1930, it consists of 538 acres (218 hectares) located along the Potomac River. Wakefield, the house where George Washington (b. Feb. 22, 1732) spent the first three years of his life, burned in 1779. The present Memorial House was reconstructed in 1931–32 and represents a typical 18th-century Virginia plantation dwelling with a period garden.

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Former U.S. manufacturer of packaged grocery and meat products. It was incorporated in 1922, having developed from the earlier Postum Cereal Co. founded by C.W. Post. It soon began acquiring other companies and products: Jell-O Co. (1925), Swans Down flour and Minute Tapioca Co. (1926), Log Cabin (1927), Maxwell House and Calumet (1928), Birdseye (1929), Sanka coffee (1932), Gaines dog food (1943), Kool-Aid (1953), Burpee seeds (1970), Oscar Mayer & Co. (1981), and Entenmann's bakery products (1982). In 1985 it was bought by Philip Morris Companies Inc.

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National preserve, northern Alaska, U.S. Its area of 11,756 sq mi (30,448 sq km) is entirely north of the Arctic Circle. Proclaimed a national monument in 1978, the area underwent boundary changes and was renamed in 1980. It includes a portion of the Central Brooks Range. The southern slopes are forested, contrasting with the barren northern reaches at the edge of Alaska's North Slope.

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National reserve, northeastern Florida, U.S. Established in 1924 and covering 228 acres (92 hectares), it centres around a Spanish fort on Rattlesnake Island, 14 mi (23 km) south of St. Augustine. Originating in 1569 as a wooden tower and completed in 1742, the fort is near the site of the slaughter of 300 French Huguenot colonists by Spaniards in 1565.

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Rock formation and archaeological site, west-central New Mexico, U.S. Established in 1906, it has an area of 2 sq mi (5 sq km). El Morro, or Inscription Rock, is a soft sandstone mesa rising 200 ft (60 m) above the valley floor and covering several acres. Spaniards and Americans left their inscriptions (1605–1906) on the cliff sides of the mesa. El Morro also has a number of pre-Columbian petroglyphs, and on its top lie ruins of Indian pueblos.

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Natural area, west-central New Mexico, U.S. Located at an elevation of 6,400–8,400 ft (1,950–2,560 m), it covers 179 sq mi (464 sq km), including a lava flow area of 133 sq mi (344 sq km). Features include a 17-mi (27-km) lava tube system, a number of ice caves, volcanic cinder cones, one of New Mexico's largest natural arches, and more than 20 gas and lava spatter cones. Designated a national natural landmark with the name McCarty Lava Flow in 1969, it became a national monument in 1987.

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Archaeological site, northeastern Iowa, U.S. Located on the Mississippi River, it covers 4 sq mi (10 sq km). Established in 1949, the monument has 183 known mounds, some of which are in the shape of birds and bears. The mounds were built over the course of the Woodland period (1000 BCAD 1200), with the effigy mounds probably constructed between AD 400 and 1200. Many mounds have yielded copper, bone, and stone tools of Indian origin. One of the bear mounds is 137 ft (42 m) long and 3.5 ft (1 m) high.

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National preserve, northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah, U.S. It was set aside in 1915 to preserve rich fossil beds that include dinosaur remains. It was enlarged in 1938 and again in 1978 to its present 330 sq mi (855 sq km). It protects the canyons of the Green and Yampa rivers, which contain highly coloured geologic formations.

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National preserve, northeastern Wyoming, U.S. The first U.S. national monument, it was established in 1906 near the Belle Fourche River. It includes 1,347 acres (545 hectares) and features a natural rock tower, the remnant of a volcanic intrusion now exposed by erosion. The tower has a flat top and is 865 ft (264 m) high.

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Preserve, southern central Alaska, U.S. Established in 1980, it comprises the former Mount McKinley National Park (1917) and Denali National Monument (1978). Highlights of the park include Mount McKinley, the large glaciers of the Alaska Range, and abundant wildlife. The park's total area is 5,000,000 acres (2,025,000 hectares).

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Natural area, central South Carolina, U.S. Authorized as a national monument in 1976 and as a national park in 2003, it covers 35 sq mi (90 sq km) of alluvial floodplain on the Congaree River. It contains the last significant tract of virgin Southern bottomland hardwoods in the southeastern U.S., including loblolly pine, water tupelo, hickory, and oak, some of record size.

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Natural area, western Colorado, U.S. Established in 1911, the 32-sq-mi (83-sq-km) scenic area is known for its colourful, wind-eroded sandstone formations, towering monoliths, and steep-walled canyons. Petrified logs and dinosaur fossils have been found in the area. Rim Rock Drive skirts the canyon walls, which rise more than 6,500 ft (1,980 m).

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Historical reservation, southeastern Virginia, U.S. Covering some 15 sq mi (38 sq km) and centred on a peninsula between the York and James rivers, it was first established as a national monument in 1930 and includes colonial and Revolutionary sites. It embraces Cape Henry, Jamestown, and Yorktown and includes the Colonial Parkway, a 23-mi (37-km) scenic route linking Jamestown, Williamsburg, and Yorktown.

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Natural area, southeastern Arizona, U.S. Unusual volcanic rock formations forming a wilderness of tall pinnacles are crowded into 19 sq mi (48.5 sq km) of ridge and canyon on the western flank of the Chiricahua Mountains. Established in 1924, the park unfolds a geologic story dating back millions of years. The region was once a stronghold of Apache Indians under Cochise and Geronimo.

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Park, eastern U.S. It consists of the former Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, a waterway running along the Potomac River between Washington, D.C., and Cumberland, Md. The canal, which extends 185 mi (297 km), was built beginning in the 1820s. Competition from the railroads later caused its economic decline. The canal was purchased in 1938 by the U.S. government; it was restored and established as a historical park in 1971.

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National preserve, northwestern New Mexico, U.S. Established as a national monument in 1907, it was redesignated and renamed in 1980. Occupying 53 sq mi (137 sq km), it contains 13 major pre-Columbian ruins and more than 300 smaller archaeological sites representing Pueblo cultures. Pueblo Bonito, built in the 10th century, is the largest Pueblo excavated site; it contained some 800 rooms.

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Preserve, southwestern Utah, U.S. Established as a national monument in 1933, it consists of a vast natural amphitheatre (10 sq mi [26 sq km]) eroded in a limestone escarpment. Iron and manganese oxide impurities in the cliff produce an amazing variety of colours that change constantly.

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Historic site, northeastern Florida, U.S. Established in 1924, it is the 25-acre (10-hectare) site of the oldest masonry fort in the U.S., built by the Spanish (1672–95) to protect St. Augustine. The fort played an important role in the Spanish-English struggle for the Southeast (circa 1670–1763). In the 19th century it served as a U.S. military prison.

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Preserve, southeastern New Mexico, U.S. Established as a national monument in 1923 and as a national park in 1930, it covers 73 sq mi (189 sq km). Beneath the surface winds a maze of underground chambers; one of the largest caverns ever discovered, the Big Room, is about 2,000 ft (600 m) long and 1,100 ft (330 m) wide, and its ceiling arches 255 ft (78 m) above the floor. In the summer a colony of bats inhabits a part of the caverns known as Bat Cave.

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Park, south-central Utah, U.S. Occupying 378 sq mi (979 sq km), it comprises great buttressed cliffs of coloured Navajo sandstone extending for 100 mi (160 km) along the western edge of the Waterpocket Fold. Established as a national monument in 1937, it became a national park in 1971. It is so named because its rock towers reminded geologists of coral reefs, while its dome-shaped formations suggest capitol architecture. The cliff walls are covered with pre-Columbian petroglyphs.

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National preserve, northwestern Alaska, U.S., on the coast of the Chukchi Sea. Established in 1978, it was enlarged in 1980 to 1,031 sq mi (2,670 sq km). Its remarkable archaeological sites illustrate the cultural evolution of the Arctic peoples over some 4,000 years.

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Scenic coastal area situated on Bodie, Hatteras, and Ocracoke islands along the Outer Banks, eastern North Carolina, U.S. The park, the country's first national seashore, was authorized in 1937 and established in 1953. It has a total area of 47 sq mi (122 sq km). It includes the tallest (208 ft [63 m]) masonry lighthouse in the country, located at Cape Hatteras.

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Park, southeastern Utah, U.S. The park, established in 1964, occupies a wilderness of water-eroded sandstone spires, canyons, and mesas extending over 527 sq mi (1,366 sq km). Some of its rock walls display Indian petroglyphs. The Needles section in its southern part contains the Angel and Druid arches, gigantic balanced rock formations.

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Preserve, northeastern Arizona, U.S. Located on the Navajo Indian reservation immediately east of Chinle, the preserve was established in 1931 and occupies 131 sq mi (339 sq km). It includes several hundred pre-Columbian cliff dwellings, some of them built in caves on the canyon walls. They represent a broader time span than any other ruins in the Southwest, with many dating from the 11th century. Modern Navajo homes and farms occupy the canyon floor.

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Corporation created by the Canadian government in 1918 to operate a number of nationalized railroads (including the old Grand Trunk lines, Intercolonial Railway, National Transcontinental Railway, and Canadian Northern Railway) as one of Canada's two transcontinental railroad systems. Its passenger services were taken over by VIA Rail Canada in 1978, and the company was privatized in 1995. The Canadian National Railway stretches across Canada from Nova Scotia to Vancouver. It bought the Illinois Central Corp. in 1999, thus acquiring a railroad network that links Canada to the Gulf of Mexico.

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Park, southern Utah, U.S. It is not a true canyon but rather a series of natural amphitheatres below which stands an array of limestone and sandstone columns. Its geology is related to that of Grand Canyon and Zion national parks, since the stone of all three was formed while the entire region was under a shallow sea. The park, established in 1928, covers 35,835 acres (14,513 hectares).

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Park, western Colorado, U.S. Comprising a narrow, deep gorge of the Gunnison River, the preserve, established as a national monument in 1933 and elevated to a national park in 1999, occupies an area of 51 sq mi (133 sq km). The canyon derives its name from its black-stained, lichen-covered walls, which accentuate the gloom of the chasm.

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Preserve, southwestern Texas, U.S. It lies 250 mi (400 km) southeast of El Paso and occupies 1,252 sq mi (3,243 sq km). It was established in 1944 and named for the wide bend in the Rio Grande that skirts its southern edge. The park has magnificent mountain and desert scenery; it is home to more than 1,000 species of plants, and its wildlife includes coyotes, pumas, and roadrunners.

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Park, southwestern Alberta, Canada. Established as a natural reserve in 1885 and as Canada's first national park in 1887, it lies on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains and includes mineral springs, ice fields, and glacial lakes, including Lake Louise. It has been greatly expanded to its present area of 2,564 sq mi (6,641 sq km). Banff is famed for its spectacular beauty, and visitors are so numerous that it is now more a recreation than a conservation area. In 1984 it was designated part of the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks UNESCO World Heritage site.

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Archaeological area, north-central New Mexico, U.S. Lying along the Rio Grande 20 mi (32 km) northwest of Santa Fe, it was established in 1916. It occupies an area of 51 sq mi (132 sq km) and was named for Adolph Bandelier, a Swiss-American archaeologist. The monument contains many cliff and open-pueblo ruins of pre-Columbian Indians (mostly 13th-century) in Frijoles Canyon. Stone sculptures and man-made caves have also been unearthed.

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Archaeological site, northwestern New Mexico, U.S. Located on the Animas River just north of the town of Aztec, it was established in 1923 and has an area of 0.5 sq mi (1.3 sq km). Mistakenly named by early settlers, the site actually contains the excavated ruins of a 12th-century Pueblo town. It was designated a World Heritage site in 1987.

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Public university in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. Founded in 1946, it originally offered only graduate programs. Undergraduates were first admitted in 1960, and today the university offers a wide range of graduate and undergraduate programs. Affiliated with the university are research schools of medicine, physical and biological sciences, social sciences, and Pacific studies.

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Preserve, eastern Utah, U.S. Located on the Colorado River north of Moab, the preserve was established as a national monument in 1929 and as a national park in 1971. Its area is about 120 sq mi (310 sq km). The park's sandstone has been eroded into unusual shapes, including Courthouse Towers, Fiery Furnace, and Devils Garden, the site of Landscape Arch, at 306 ft (93 m) the longest freestanding natural rock bridge in the world.

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Footpath, Appalachian Mountains, U.S. Extending over 2,000 mi (3,200 km) from Mount Katahdin, Maine, to Springer Mountain, Georgia, along the crest of the mountains, the trail passes through 14 states, 8 national forests, and 2 national parks. Hikers and volunteers maintain the shelters and campsites. The trail's highest point is Clingmans Dome (6,643 ft [2,025 m]) in the Great Smoky Mountains. With its first section opened in 1923, the trail was completed in 1937 and became part of the National Trail System established by the U.S. Congress in 1968.

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Park, southern shore of the Alaska Peninsula, U.S. Situated in the volcanically active Aleutian Range, it consists primarily of a great dry caldera, which last erupted in 1931. The crater has an average diameter of 6 mi (10 km). Declared a national monument in 1978, it covers 942 sq mi (2,440 sq km).

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Natural “depository” of an extinct animal community on the Niobrara River, northwestern Nebraska, U.S. The beds, laid down as sedimentary deposits 20 million years ago, bear the remains of prehistoric mammals. Discovered circa 1878, the site was named for its proximity to rock formations containing agates. A national monument since 1965, it covers 2,269 acres (918 hectares).

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South African political party and black nationalist organization. Founded in 1912 (as the South African Native National Congress), the ANC was long dedicated to the elimination of apartheid. In response to government massacres of demonstrators at Sharpeville (1960) and Soweto (1976), it carried out acts of sabotage and guerrilla warfare. The campaign was largely ineffective because of stringent South African internal security measures, including an official ban on the ANC between 1960 and 1990. In 1991, with the ban lifted, Nelson Mandela succeeded Oliver Tambo as ANC president. In 1994 the party swept the country's first elections based on universal suffrage; the ANC led a coalition government that initially included members of its longtime rival, the National Party, and Mandela became South Africa's president. In 1999 Thabo Mbeki replaced him as president of the ANC and of South Africa. In one of the most contentious leadership battles in the party's history, Jacob Zuma was selected to succeed Mbeki as ANC president in 2007. Seealso Inkatha Freedom Party; Albert Lutuli; Pan-African movement.

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Preserve on the coast of Maine, U.S. It has an area of 65 sq mi (168 sq km). Originally established as Sieur de Monts National Monument (1916), it became the first national park in the eastern U.S. as Lafayette National Park (1919) and was renamed Acadia in 1929. It consists mainly of a forested area on Mount Desert Island, dominated by Cadillac Mountain.

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any of many entities whose names start with "National"

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