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nail claw

Grendel

[gren-dl]
Grendel is one of three antagonists, along with Grendel's mother and the dragon, in the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf (AD 700–1000). In the poem, Grendel is feared by all but Beowulf.

Story

The poem Beowulf is contained in the Nowell Codex. As noted in lines 106–114 and lines 1260–1267 of Beowulf, Grendel's mother and Grendel are described as descendants of the Biblical Cain. Beowulf leaves Geatland in order to find and destroy Grendel, who has been attacking Heorot, killing and cannibalising anyone he finds there. Barring his lineage, all motives for his attacks are left up to the reader. Usually in most film or literature adaptions, Grendel attacks the hall having been disturbed by the noise the drunken revellers have made. One cryptic scene, in which Grendel sits in the abandoned hall unable to approach the throne, hints that his motives may be greed or revenge. After a long battle, Beowulf mortally wounds Grendel by ripping his arm off. Grendel dies in his cave under the swamp. Beowulf later engages in a fierce battle with Grendel's mother, over whom he triumphs. Following her death, Beowulf finds Grendel's corpse and removes the head, keeping it as a trophy. Beowulf then returns to the surface and to his men at the "ninth hour" (l. 1600, "nōn", about 3pm). He returns to Heorot, where he is given many gifts by an even more grateful Hroðgar.

Scholarship

Tolkien

In 1936, J.R.R. Tolkien's Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics discussed Grendel and the dragon in Beowulf. This essay was the first work of scholarship in which Anglo-Saxon literature was seriously examined for its literary merits—not just scholarship about the origins of the English language as was popular in the 19th century.

Debate over description

During the following decades, the exact description of Grendel would become a source of debate for scholars. Indeed, because his exact appearance is never directly described in Old English by the original Beowulf poet, part of the debate revolves around what is known, namely his descent from the biblical Cain (who was the first murderer in Christian religions).

Monster

Some scholars have linked Grendel's descent from Cain to the monsters and giants of The Cain Tradition.

Seamus Heaney, in his translation of Beowulf, writes in lines 1351–1355 that Grendel is vaguely human in shape, though much larger:

... the other, warped
in the shape of a man, moves beyond the pale
bigger than any man, an unnatural birth
called Grendel by the country people
in former days.

Heaney's translation of lines 1637–1639 also notes that his disembodied head is so large that it takes four men to transport it. Furthermore, in lines 983–89, when Grendel's torn arm is inspected, Heaney describes it as being covered in impenetrable scales and horny growths:

Every nail, claw-scale and spur, every spike
and welt on the hand of that heathen brute
was like barbed steel. Everybody said
there was no honed iron hard enough
to pierce him through, no time proofed blade
that could cut his brutal blood caked claw

Peter Dickinson (1979) argued that seeing as the considered distinction between man and beast at the time the poem was written was simply man's bipedalism, the given description of Grendel being man-like does not necessarily imply that Grendel is meant to be humanoid, going as far as stating that Grendel could easily have been a bipedal dragon.

Non-monster

Other scholars such as Kuhn (1979) have questioned a monstrous description, stating:

There are five disputed instances of aglæca [three of which are in Beowulf] 649, 1269, 1512...In the first...the referent can be either Beowulf or Grendel. If the poet and his audience felt the word to have two meanings, 'monster,' and 'hero,' the ambiguity would be troublesome; but if by āglǣca they understood a 'fighter,' the ambiguity would be of little consequence, for battle was destined for both Beowulf and Grendel and both were fierce fighters (216–7).

O'Keefe has suggested that Grendel resembles a Berserker, because of numerous associations that seem to point to this possibility.

John Grigsby, in his Beowulf and Grendel :The Truth behind England's oldest legend' suggests that Grendel is a demonized version of the old Norse fertility god Freyr, and even goes as far as linking Grendel with the Green Knight of Arthurian legend.

Grendelsmere

In Worcestershire there was a pond called Grendelsmere near Abbots Morton during the Old English era. The name is likely to be an allusion to Grendel from Beowulf. The pond is now extinct.

Grendel in film, literature, and popular culture

In 1971, author John Gardner published the novel Grendel, a retelling of Beowulf from the monster's point of view.

Grendel has been adapted in a number of different mediums (film, literature, and graphic/illustrated novels or comic books) including the film Beowulf and Grendel, in which Grendel is described as a troll, and is very humanoid, merely being slightly taller and hairier (he is depicted as a child with a beard at the start of the film) than the average human.

In the Robert Zemeckis film, Beowulf, Grendel is more monstrous, resembling a heavily deformed giant covered in sores and scabs. Grendel's attacks are explained in this version by having an oversized eardrum on the outside of his head. The noise of the revelers causes him pain.

He was also voiced by Peter Ustinov in the 1983 Australian animated film, Grendel Grendel Grendel, based on the John Gardner novel. In 2006, Elliot Goldenthal and Julie Taymor premiered an opera of Grendel, also based on Gardner's novel.

The progressive rock band Marillion recorded a song titled "Grendel" as the B-side for the 12" version of their first single Market Square Heroes in 1982.

In the Xbox 360 game Too Human, Grendel is a boss character, a sentient mechanical monstrosity known as "GRNDL-1".

Grendel is the name of an ancient, sentient weapon in the video-game Skies of Arcadia. Here, Grendel has the form of a green giant.

Notes

References

  • Jack, George. Beowulf : A Student Edition. Oxford University Press: New York, 1997.
  • Klaeber, Frederick, ed. Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburg. Third ed. Boston: Heath, 1950.
  • Kuhn, Sherman M. "Old English Aglaeca-Middle Irish Olach". Linguistic Method : Essays in Honor of Herbert Penzl. Eds. Irmengard Rauch and Gerald F. Carr. The Hague, New York: Mouton Publishers, 1979. 213–30.
  • Tolkien, J.R.R. Beowulf, the Monsters and the Critics. (Sir Israel Gollancz Memorial Lecture, British Academy, 1936). First ed. London: Humphrey Milford, 1937.

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