Definitions

naiad

naiad

[ney-ad, -uhd, nahy-]
naiad, in zoology: see insect.
Naiad, in astronomy, one of the natural satellites, or moons, of Neptune.

In entomology, the sexually immature form of insects that undergo incomplete metamorphosis (e.g., grasshoppers). The nymph is similar to the adult but differs in body proportions and (in winged species) has only wing buds, which develop into wings after the first few molts (see molting). During each successive growing stage (instar), the nymph begins to resemble the adult more closely. The nymphs of aquatic species (also called naiads), such as dragonflies, have gills and other modifications for an aquatic existence. At maturity, they float to the surface or crawl out of the water, undergo a final molt, and emerge as winged adults.

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In Greek mythology, the Naiads or Naiades (Ναϊάδες from the Greek νάειν, "to flow," and νἃμα, "running water") were a type of nymph who presided over fountains, wells, springs, streams, and brooks.

They are distinct from river gods, who embodied rivers, and the very ancient spirits that inhabited the still waters of marshes, ponds and lagoon-lakes, such as pre-Mycenaean Lerna in the Argolid. Naiads were associated with fresh water, as the Oceanids were with saltwater and the Nereids specifically with the Mediterranean; but because the Greeks thought of the world's waters as all one system, which percolated in from the sea in deep cavernous spaces within the earth, there was some overlap. Arethusa, the nymph of a spring, could make her way through subterranean flows from the Peloponnesus, to surface on the island of Sicily.

Mythology

The essence of a naiad was bound to her spring, so if a naiad's body of water dried, she died.

They were often the object of archaic local cults, worshipped as essential to humans. Boys and girls at coming-of-age ceremonies dedicated their childish locks to the local naiad of the spring. In places like Lerna their waters' ritual cleansings were credited with magical medical properties. Animals were ritually drowned there. Oracles might be situated by ancient springs.

Naiads could be dangerous: Hylas of the Argo's crew was lost when he was taken by naiads fascinated by his beauty (illustration, above left). The naiads were also known to exhibit jealous tendencies. Theocritus's story of naiad jealousy was that of a shepherd, Daphnis, who was the lover of Nomia; Daphnis had on several occasions been unfaithful to Nomia and as revenge she permanently blinded him. Salmacis forced the youth Hermaphroditus into a carnal embrace and, when he sought to get away, fused with him.

The Naiads were either daughters of Zeus or various Oceanids, but a genealogy for such ancient, ageless creatures is easily overstated. The water nymph associated with particular springs was known all through Europe in places with no direct connection with Greece, surviving in the Celtic wells of northwest Europe that have been rededicated to Saints, and in the medieval Melusine.

Walter Burkert points out, "When in the Iliad [xx.4–9] Zeus calls the gods into assembly on Mount Olympus, it is not only the well-known Olympians who come along, but also all the nymphs and all the rivers; Okeanos alone remains at his station," (Burkert 1985), Greek hearers recognized this impossibility as the poet's hyperbole, which proclaimed the universal power of Zeus over the ancient natural world: "the worship of these deities," Burkert confirms, "is limited only by the fact that they are inseparably identified with a specific locality."

Interpretation

When a mythic king is credited with marrying a naiad and founding a city, Robert Graves offers a sociopolitical reading: the new arriving Hellenes justify their presence by taking to wife the naiad of the spring, so, in the back-story of the myth of Aristaeus, Hypseus, a king of the Lapiths wed Chlidanope, a naiad, who bore him Cyrene. In parallels among the Immortals, the loves and rapes of Zeus, according to Graves' readings, record the supplanting of ancient local cults by Olympian ones (Graves 1955, passim). Aristaeus had more than ordinary mortal experience with the naiads: when his bees died in Thessaly, he went to consult the naiads. His aunt Arethusa invited him below the water's surface, where he was washed with water from a perpetual spring and given advice. A less well-connected mortal might have drowned, being sent as a messenger in this way to gain the advice and favor of the naiads for his people.

Types of Naiads

  1. Crinaeae (fountains)
  2. Limnades or Limnatides (lakes)
  3. Pegaeae (springs)
  4. Potameides (rivers)
  5. Eleionomae (marshes)

Individual Naiads

  1. Abarbarea
  2. Aegle
  3. Annaed
  4. Arethusa
  5. Bateia
  6. Callirrhoe
  7. Castalia
  8. Cleochareia
  9. Corycian
    1. Corycia
    2. Kleodora or Cleodora
    3. Melaina
  10. Creusa
  11. Drosera
  12. Echenais
  13. Harpina
  14. Lara
  15. Lethe
  16. Lilaea
  17. Melite
  18. Minthe
  19. Nomia
  20. Orseis
  21. Periboea
  22. Pitane
  23. Praxithea
  24. Salmacis
  25. Styx

In popular culture

  • In Fablehaven, the character Lena is a Naiad who chose to become Mortal. She is returned to life as a Naiad by fairies at the end of the book.
  • The Ron Horsley short story "Joy, Unbottled," is about a young boy who discovers a senile and corrupted naiad residing in an old discarded bathtub on his uncle's rural property.
  • Despite her name, the Marvel Comics character Venus is a Naiad.
  • Naiads are among the creatures appearing in Aslan's company in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and are also in The Magician's Nephew and Prince Caspian.
  • In the video game God of War, sea nymphs representing Naiads appear in the Challenge of Poseidon. However, it is spelt "Nyad" in the game and they are daughters of Poseidon. If the player finds them and kisses them, he will earn special gifts.

See also

References

External links

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