Mount

Mount

[mount]
Athabasca, Mount, 11,452 ft (3,491 m) high, W Alta., Canada, in the Canadian Rockies at the headwaters of the Athabasca River. It is on the edge of the Columbia snowfield, and the Saskatchewan and Athabasca glaciers flow around it.
Ebal, Mount, Arabic Jabal Aybal, 3,084 ft (940 m) high, in the Samarian hills, West Bank. On Ebal, according to the Bible, the curses due for the violations of God's commands were delivered. There also, Joshua built the altar and monument inscribed with the Mosaic law.
Egmont, Mount, or Taranaki, dormant volcano, 8,260 ft (2,517 m) high, on North Island, New Zealand. Conical and snowcapped, it dominates the island's west side.
Wilson, Mount, peak, 5,710 ft (1,740 m) high, S Calif., in the San Gabriel Mts., NE of Pasadena. It is the site of Mt. Wilson Observatory (est. 1904), one of the Hale Observatories. A 100-in. (254-cm) reflecting telescope there, no longer in use, was once the world's largest.
Asama, Mount, or Asama-yama, peak, 8,425 ft (2,568 m) high, central Honshu, Japan, near Komoro. One of the largest and most active volcanoes in Japan, it erupted violently in 1783 and has frequent minor eruptions.
Assiniboine, Mount, 11,870 ft (3,618 m) high, on the British Columbia-Alta. line, Canada, on the Continental Divide in the Rocky Mts. It is the focal point of Mt. Assiniboine Provincial Park (20 sq mi/52 sq km; est. 1922).
Ida, Mount, Gr. Ídhi, 8,058 ft (2,456 m) high, central Crete, Greece; the highest mountain on Crete.
Pinatubo, Mount, active volcano, 5,840 ft (1,780 m), central Luzon island, the Philippines, c.55 mi (90 km) NW of Manila. Dormant for 600 years, it began erupting on Apr. 2, 1991. Most residents had evacuated surrounding areas when Pinatubo erupted catastrophically (June 15, 1991), killing over 500 people and burying over 310 sq mi (800 sq km) under volcanic ash. As much as 2 cu mi (8 cu km) of ash was ejected in the eruption. The nearby U.S. Clark Air Force Base was devastated by the ash fall, which resulted in the base's closure. Landslides of rain-soaked volcanic ash caused further destruction in 1991 and subsequent years.
Borah, Mount [for William E. Borah], peak, 12,662 ft (3,859 m) high, central Idaho, in the Lost River Mts.; highest point in the state.
Mansfield, Mount, peak, 4,393 ft (1,339 m) high, N central Vt.; highest peak in the Green Mts. and in Vermont. Most of the mountain is in Mt. Mansfield State Forest. At the foot of the mountain is a deep gorge called Smugglers Notch. The Mt. Mansfield area is a winter-sports center offering some of the finest skiing in New England.
Marcy, Mount, 5,344 ft (1,629 m) high, NE N.Y., in the Adirondack Mts.; highest peak in the state. Lake Tear of the Clouds, on its southern slope, is the source of the main headstream of the Hudson River.
Ólonos, Mount: see Erymanthos, mountains, Greece.
Olympus, Mount: see Cyprus; Olympic Mts.; Olympus.
Elbert, Mount, peak, 14,433 ft (4,399 m) high, central Colo.; highest point in the state and tallest peak in the U.S. Rocky Mts.
Elbrus, Mount, highest mountain of the Caucasus, SE European Russia, in Georgia, formed by two extinct volcanic cones, respectively 18,481 ft (5,633 m) and 18,356 ft (5,595 m) high. Its glaciers give rise to several rivers, notably the Kuban. The snow line is at c.11,000 ft (3,350 m).
Elgon, Mount, extinct volcano, central Africa, on the Kenya-Uganda border. Its highest peak is Wagagai (14,178 ft/4,321 m). The inhabitants of Mt. Elgon's densely populated lower slopes cultivate arabica coffee, tea, bananas, and millet.
Logan, Mount [for Sir William Logan], 19,551 ft (5,959 m) high, in Kluane National Park, extreme SW Yukon, Canada, just E of Alaska; highest mountain in Canada and second highest in North America. It caps an immense tableland and is the center of the greatest glacial expanse in North America. The first ascent was made in 1925.
Frissell, Mount, peak, 2,380 ft (725 m) high, NW Conn., in the Taconic Mts., near the Mass.-N.Y. line.
Fuji, Mount, Fujiyama, or Fuji-san, volcanic peak, 12,389 ft (3,776 m) high, central Honshu, Japan, in Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park (472 sq mi/1,222 sq km; est. 1936). The highest mountain in Japan, it is a sacred mountain and the traditional goal of pilgrimage. According to legend, an earthquake created Fuji in 286 B.C. The beauty of the snowcapped symmetrical cone, ringed by lakes and virgin forests, has inspired Japanese poets and painters throughout the centuries. Its last major eruption was in 1707.
Jearim, Mount, the same as Chesalon.
Jefferson, Mount, N.H.: see Presidential Range.
Greylock, Mount, Mass.: see Berkshire Hills.
Moriah, Mount, biblical name of the hill of E Jerusalem. According to Second Chronicles it was the site of Solomon's temple.
Morrison, Mount, Taiwan: see Yu Shan.
Alexandra, Mount, E Africa: see Ruwenzori, mts.
Rainier, Mount: see Mount Rainier National Park.
Hood, Mount, peak, 11,235 ft (3,424 m) high, NW Oreg., in the Cascade Range, E of Portland; highest point in the state and the center of Mt. Hood National Forest. A symmetrical, dormant volcano with glaciers and forested lower slopes, it is a favorite mountain-climbing and skiing center.
Evans, Mount, peak, 14,260 ft (4,346 m) high, N central Colo., in the Front Range of the Rocky Mts. At its summit is the Inter-University High Altitude Laboratory.
Everest, Mount, peak, 29,035 ft (8,850 m) high, on the border of Tibet and Nepal, in the central Himalayas. It is the highest elevation in the world. Called Chomolungma or Qomolangma [Mother Goddess of the Land] by Tibetans and Sagarmatha [head of the sea] by Nepalis, it is named in English for the surveyor Sir George Everest. It was first climbed on May 28, 1953, when Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay of Nepal reached the summit. The body of George H. L. Mallory, who died in an earlier attempt (1924), was found on the mountain in 1999.

See S. B. Ortner, Life and Death on Mt. Everest (1999).

Nebo, Mount, 2,625 ft (800 m) high, N Jordan. In the Bible, Moses viewed the Promised Land from there before his death.
Nemrut, Mount, Turk. Nemrut Dağ, mountain in SE Turkey, in the Anti-Taurus Mts. Rising 7,052 ft (2,150 m), it is the site of the mausoleum of Antiochus I (c.69-c.34 B.C.), king of ancient Commagene. The complex, which includes a 500-ft- (152-m-) wide and 164-ft- (50-m-) tall pyramidal tomb, gigantic (c.30 ft/9 m) stone busts of the kingdom's gods and rulers, and a wall with magnificent carved reliefs, is one of the most impressive monuments of Hellenistic civilization. The gods depicted, worshipped by Antiochus and his people, represent an unusual merging of Western (Greek) and Eastern (Persian) cultures, reflected in such divine names as Zeus-Oromasdes and Apollo-Mithras. The Mount Nemrut ruins were discovered in 1881 and declared a UN World Heritage Site in 1987.
Cook, Mount, New Zealand: see Aorangi, Mount.
Carmel, Mount [Heb.,=garden land], mountain ridge, NW Israel, extending 13 mi (21 km) NW from the plain of Esdraelon to the Mediterranean Sea, where it ends in a promontory marking the southern limit of the Bay of Haifa. Its highest point is 1,792 ft (546 m), and it is one of the most striking physical features of Israel. Long an object of veneration, it was associated in biblical times with the lives of the prophets Elijah and Elisha. From the mountainside vineyards comes the renowned Mt. Carmel wine; there are also olive groves. At the foot of Mt. Carmel is the port of Haifa, with the city rising up along its slopes and at its top. On its slopes are a Baha'ist garden shrine, with the tombs of Bab-ed-din and of Abdul Baha (see Baha'i), and a 19th-century Carmelite monastery.
Carstensz, Mount, New Guinea: see Jaya Peak.
Saint Elias, Mount, 18,008 ft (5,489 m) high, in the St. Elias Mts. on the U.S.-Canadian border between SW Yukon and SE Alaska; fourth highest peak of North America. It was first seen by Danish explorer Vitus Bering on July 16, 1741; the duke of the Abruzzi, an Italian explorer, was the first (1897) to climb it. Malaspina Glacier rises there.
Saint Helens, Mount, volcanic peak, 8,363 ft (2,549 m; 9,677 ft/2,950 m before its 1980 eruption) high, SW Wash., historically the most active volcano in the Cascade Range. Dormant since 1857, Mt. St. Helens erupted on May 18, 1980, in one of the largest volcanic explosions in North American history; prior to that event there were a series of earth tremors and steam explosions beginning on Mar. 20, 1980. During the eruption a great portion of the rock facing on north side of the mountain fell, followed by a lateral blast of stone, ash, and poisonous gas that carried debris 17 mi (27 km) and flattened and buried surrounding forest. The disaster took some 65 lives, wiped out substantial populations of elk, deer, bear, and coyote, and destroyed 230 sq mi (600 sq km) of vegetation. A volcanic plume rose 80,000 ft (24,400 m) into the air, blanketing a large area of the NW United States with volcanic ash. The summit of Mt. St. Helens was replaced by a horseshoe-shaped crater 2,460 ft (750 m) deep. A number of smaller eruptions, beginning on May 25 and continuing into 1986, resulted in lava flows that built up a dome in the crater; a new, dome-building eruption began in 2004. The volcano and surrounding area are now part of Mt. St. Helens National Volcanic Monument and have provided biologists with a unique opportunity to observe ecological succession and the reestablishment of natural habitats.

See S. A. Kellar, ed., Mount St. Helens (1982).

Taal, Mount, the Philippines: see under Taal, Lake.
Tabor, Mount, 1,929 ft (588 m) high, N Israel, in Galilee. Ruins of an ancient stronghold crown its summit. Mt. Tabor is surrounded by growing Israeli towns and settlements.
Tamalpais, Mount, peak, 2,604 ft (794 m) high, W Calif., across the Golden Gate from San Francisco. The mountain is a game preserve and a resort. The city of Mill Valley and Muir Woods National Monument, a redwood grove, lie at its base.
Scopus, Mount, peak, 2,736 ft (834 m) high, NNE of Jerusalem. Dominating Jerusalem, it has long held strategic importance in the defense of the city. Roman legions camped there in A.D. 70 as did the Crusaders in 1099. From the Arab-Israeli war of 1948 until Israel recaptured all of Jerusalem in 1967, Mt. Scopus was an Israeli-held enclave in Jordanian territory. It is the site of the Hebrew Univ. and the Hadassa Medical Center.
Pulog, Mount, peak, 9,606 ft (2,928 m) high, NW Luzon, the Philippines, in the Cordillera Central. It is the second highest point in the Philippines.
Paektu or Baekdu, Mount, inactive volcanic peak, 9,003 ft (2,744 m) high, on the border between North Korea and China. The highest mountain in Korea, it rises from a basalt lava plateau that is the headwaters of the Yalu (Amnok), Tuman (Tumen), and Songhua rivers. A crater lake, Heaven Lake, is at the top of the mountain. Koreans consider the mountain, which is traditionally regarded as their ancestral place of origin, to be sacred, and it is a popular tourist destination. Mt. Paektu is also known as White Head Mt. and Changbai Mt.
Cameroon, Mount, active volcano, 13,354 ft (4,070 m) high, in the Cameroon Highlands, W Cameroon; highest point in W Africa. The western side of the mountain receives an average annual rainfall of more than 400 in. (1,016 cm) and is covered with tropical rain forest. Cocoa, banana, rubber, and tea plantations are found on the lower slopes. The volcano last erupted in 1999.
Roraima, Mount, mountain, 9,219 ft (2,810 m) high, at the junction of the boundaries of Brazil, Guyana, and Venezuela. A giant table mountain, it is the highest point in the Guiana Highlands.
Lucania, Mount, 17,147 ft (5,226 m) high, in the St. Elias Mts., SW Yukon, Canada, near the Alaska line; Canada's third tallest peak.
Lydia, Mount, Turkey: see Mycale.
Merapi, Mount [Indonesian=mountain of fire], volcano, 9,551 ft (2,911 m) high, central Java, Indonesia, 20 mi (32 km) NNE of Yogyakarta. It is the most active of Indonesia's many volcanoes, but most of its eruptions are relatively small. In 1006, however, its eruption caused devastation throughout central Java and destroyed a Hindu kingdom on the island. Merapi's eruptions are often accompanied by clouds of scalding gas; it was this phenomenon that killed some 60 people during its 1994 eruption. Local people are said to revere Merapi as a representation of Hinduism's holy Mt. Meru or as the dwelling place of ancient protective spirits.
Meru, Mount, extinct volcano, 14,979 ft (4,566 m) high, NE Tanzania, near Mt. Kilimanjaro. Coffee is grown on its lower slopes.
Rushmore, Mount: see Mount Rushmore National Memorial.
Aragats, Mount or Mount Alagez, extinct volcano, 13,435 ft (4,095 m) high, N Armenia, in the Lesser Caucasus. It is the highest peak in Armenia.
Townsend, Mount, 7,260 ft (2,213 m) high, SE New South Wales, in the Australian Alps. The second tallest peak in Australia, it was explored by Polish Count Strzelecki. Thought to be Australia's highest peak, it was at first called Mt. Kosciusko, in honor of a Polish patriot. When a higher peak, the present Mt. Kosciusko, was discovered, the name was changed to Mt. Townsend.
Kinabalu or Kinibalu, Mount, peak, 13,455 ft (4,101 m) high, N Sabah, Malaysia, NE of Kota Kinabalu; highest peak on Borneo.
Kinibalu, Mount: see Kinabalu, Mount, Malaysia.
Kirinyaga, Mount: see Kenya, Mount.
Hamilton, Mount, peak 4,372 ft (1,333 m) high, W Calif., in the Coast Ranges, E of San Jose. It is the site of Lick Observatory (built 1876-88), directed by the Univ. of California Observatories.
Massive, Mount, peak, 14,421 ft (4,396 m) high, W central Colo., in the Sawatch Mts. It is the second highest peak in the U.S. Rocky Mts.
Gargarus, Mount: see Kaz Daği.
Mayon, Mount, active volcano, c.8,000 ft (2,440 m) high, SE Luzon, the Philippines. One of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines, it also is considered one of the world's most perfect cones. The town of Cagsawa was buried in an eruption in 1814; major eruptions occurred in 1947, 1984, and 1993. Mayon has erupted several times since its last major eruption.
McKinley, Mount, peak, 20,320 ft (6,194 m) high, S central Alaska, in the Alaska Range; highest point in North America. Permanent snowfields cover more than half the mountain and feed numerous glaciers. Known locally as Denali ["the Great One"], Mt. McKinley was first scaled successfully by the American explorer Hudson Stuck in 1913. It is included in Denali National Park and Preserve.
Shasta, Mount, volcanic peak, 14,162 ft (4,317 m) high, N Calif., in the Cascade Range. Visited c.1827 by Peter Skene Ogden, a British fur trader and explorer, Mt. Shasta has long been extinct except for hot sulfurous springs near the top. The resort town of Mt. Shasta is at the southwest foot of the mountain. The peak has had spiritual significance for the Klamath and Modoc tribes, and in 1987 an assemblage of New Age enthusiasts gathered there to honor a planetary alignment, with many choosing to remain in the area.
Whitney, Mount, peak, 14,494 ft (4,418 m) high, E Calif., in the Sierra Nevada at the eastern border of Sequoia National Park; the highest peak in the contiguous 48 states (Mt. McKinley, Alaska, is the highest peak in the United States). It is connected by a scenic highway with Death Valley. The peak is named for U.S. geologist Josiah D. Whitney, who surveyed it in 1864.
Wilhelmina, Mount, Indonesia: see Trikora Peak.
Godwin-Austen, Mount, peak, Kashmir: see K2.
Steele, Mount, 16,624 ft (5,067 m) high, in the St. Elias Mts., SW Yukon, Canada, in Kluane National Park near the Alaska line; one of Canada's tallest peaks.
Robson, Mount, British Columbia: see Mount Robson Provincial Park.
Davis, Mount, peak, 3,213 ft (979 m) high, SW Pa., in the Alleghenies; highest point in Pennsylvania.
Erebus, Mount, volcanic peak, 12,280 ft (3,743 m) high, on Ross Island, in the Ross Sea, E Antarctica. One of the loftiest volcanoes of the world, it was discovered in 1841 by the British explorer James C. Ross and named for one of his two ships. It was climbed in 1908 by a party under a British geologist, T. W. E. David. It was last active in 1991 and is one of only three active volcanoes in Antarctica.
Kasbek, Mount: see Kazbek, Mount, Georgia.
Kazbek, Mount, peak, 16,541 ft (5,042 m) high, N Georgia, in the Greater Caucasus. An extinct volcano, it rises above the Daryal gorge and the Georgian Military Road. Its glaciers give rise to the Terek River. Mt. Kazbek was first scaled in 1868. An alternate spelling is Kasbek.
Hermon, Mount, Arabic Jabal Ash Shaykh [mountain of the chief] and Jebel-eth-Thelj [snowy mountain], on the Syria-Lebanon border. The highest of its three peaks (all of which are snow-covered in winter and spring) rises to 9,232 ft (2,814 m). Its seasonal snow melt is important to the headwater flow of the Jordan River. Mt. Hermon, a sacred landmark in ancient Palestine, is mentioned often in the Bible as Hermon, Sion, Senir, and Shenir. The name Baal-Hermon records the reverence in which it was held by the worshipers of Baal. The Romans also revered it, as did the Druze (there is a Druze shrine near Hasbayya). The ancient city of Caesarea Philippi was at its foot. Mt. Hermon is traditionally designated as the scene of the Transfiguration. Israel has possessed Mt. Hermon's southern and western slopes since the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. They are used for winter skiing and as observation points for the Israeli military.
Aorangi, Mount, Mount Aoraki [both: Maori,=cloud in the sky], or Mount Cook, 12,254 ft (3,735 m) high, on the South Island, New Zealand, in the Southern Alps; highest peak of New Zealand. Several glaciers, including the Tasman and Hooker, radiate from its flanks.
Apo, Mount, active volcano, 9,690 ft (2,953 m) high, on S Mindanao island, the Philippines. It is the highest peak of the islands. Mt. Apo has a snowcapped appearance but is actually covered with white sulfur. Mt. Apo National Park (281 sq mi/728 sq km; est. 1936) is there.
Mount, William Sidney, 1807-68, American genre and portrait painter, b. Setauket, N.Y. His childhood was spent at Stony Brook, Long Island, the scene of many of his pictures. At 17 he was apprenticed to his elder brother, Henry, a sign and ornament painter. Mount studied at the National Academy of Design for about a year (1826) and then began to support himself by portrait painting. His success in that field was only moderate. After 1836 he lived in Stony Brook, and there he painted the genre pictures for which he is noted. Horse trading, country dances, and farm scenes with landscape and figures are favorite subjects. Although Mount's anecdotal paintings of American blacks are now considered studies of stereotyped characters, he was the first important American master to portray blacks, and he portrayed them with sympathy. Executed with careful craftsmanship, his works convey a sense of liveliness and humor. Most of his paintings are in private collections, but many of them are known through lithographs and engravings. Raffling for the Goose and Long Island Farmhouses are in the Metropolitan Museum. The New-York Historical Society has several of Mount's works.

See study by J. Des Grange (1968).

Kosciusko, Mount, 7,316 ft (2,230 m) high, SE New South Wales, Australia, in the Australian Alps; highest peak of Australia. Tourism developed significantly in the 1980s.
Kumgang, Mount, mountain, SE North Korea, rising to 5,374 ft (1,638 m). There are scenic ravines and caverns and many ancient Buddhist temples, as well as a modern resort, built and operated by a South Korean company and catering to South Korean tourists, at the foot of the mountain.
Mitchell, Mount, peak, 6,684 ft (2,037 m) high, W N.C., in the Black Mts. of the Appalachian system; highest peak E of the Mississippi River.
Alagez, Mount: see Aragats, Mount, Armenia.
Baekdu, Mount: see Paektu, Mount.
Washington, Mount, N.H.: see Presidential Range.
Kelud, Mount, Bahasa Indonesia, Gunung Kelud, active volcano, 5,643 ft (1,720 m) high, central East Java prov., Indonesia, SE of Kediri and NE of Blitar; also known as Mt. Kelut. Lahars caused by its crater lake and pyroclastic flows make Mt. Kelud's eruptions particularly dangerous; drainage tunnels have been constructed since 1926 to lower the lake's level. Its 1586 eruption is estimated to have killed 10,000 people; in 1919 more than 5,000 died.
Kelut, Mount, Indonesia: see Kelud, Mount.
Kennedy, Mount, 13,095 ft (3,991 m) high, SW Yukon, Canada, in the St. Elias Mts. near the Alaskan border. It was named in honor of U.S. President John F. Kennedy in 1965. Although visited in 1935, the mountain was climbed for the first time in 1965 by a team that included Robert F. Kennedy, the President's brother.
Kenya, Mount, or Mount Kirinyaga, extinct volcano, central Kenya, just south of the equator. Its highest peak, Batian, reaches 17,058 ft (5,199 m), making Mt. Kenya the highest mountain in Africa after Kilimanjaro. In the heart of Kikuyu country, Mt. Kenya was a focal point during the Mau Mau disturbances (1952-56). The Kikuyu, Meru, and Embu people cultivate Mt. Kenya's fertile lower slopes. From 5,000 to 15,000 ft (1,524-4,572 m) are dense woodlands inhabited by elephants, buffalo, and leopards. Snowcapped Mt. Kenya has several glaciers in its uppermost regions. The national park is located there and Mt. Kenya attracts many mountain climbers from around the world.
Kerinci, Mount, or Mount Kerintji, peak, 12,467 ft (3,800 m) high, in the Pegunungan Barisan, W central Sumatra, Indonesia. It is Sumatra's highest point.

(born Nov. 26, 1807, Setauket, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 19, 1868, Setauket) U.S. painter. He was apprenticed at 17 to his older brother as a sign painter. After studying drawing at the National Academy of Design, he painted historical subjects, but he later turned to genre painting and achieved immediate success with such works as Rustic Dance After a Sleigh Ride (1830). His portrayals of country life, affectionate and humorous without being sentimental, are a valuable record of his time. He was one of the first and most notable U.S. genre painters.

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Peak in the Sierra Nevada, southeast-central California, U.S. Located in Sequoia National Park, it is 14,494 ft (4,418 m) high, the highest point in the continental U.S. outside of Alaska. It was first climbed in 1873.

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Peak in the Presidential Range of the White Mountains, northern New Hampshire. Reaching an elevation of 6,288 ft (1,917 m), it is the highest point in the northeastern U.S. and is noted for its extreme weather conditions; the world's highest wind velocity (231 mph [372 kph]) was recorded there in 1934. It is the site of Mount Washington Observatory. The area is included in the White Mountain National Forest.

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Peak, Cascade Range, northern California, U.S. A double-peaked extinct volcano 14,162 ft (4,317 m) high, Mount Shasta dominates the landscape for a hundred miles. The several glaciers on its slopes are popular with skiers and climbers. The first ascent was made in 1854.

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Volcanic peak in the Cascade Range, southwestern Washington, U.S. Dormant since 1857, it erupted in May 1980 in one of the greatest volcanic explosions ever recorded in North America. Sixty people and thousands of animals were killed in the May 18 event, and 10 million trees were blown down by the lateral air blast. At the event's end Mount St. Helens's volcanic cone had been completely blasted away; in place of its 9,680-ft (2,950-m) peak was a horseshoe-shaped crater with a rim reaching elevations of about 8,000 ft (2,400 m). Further eruptions have occurred since 1980, and a dome of lava has grown in the crater. Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument was established in 1982.

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Mountain, west-central Washington state, U.S. At 14,410 ft (4,392 m), Mount Rainier is the highest point in the Cascade Range and in the state. The mountain is actually a dormant volcano that last erupted some 150–175 years ago; it covers 100 sq mi (260 sq km) and is surrounded by the largest single-mountain glacier system in the continental U.S., with 41 glaciers radiating from the broad summit. It forms the centre of Mount Rainier National Park, which was established in 1899 and comprises 368 sq mi (953 sq km). It is a popular tourist and recreation area.

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Volcano, western Luzon, Philippines. Located about 55 mi (90 km) northwest of Manila, it rose to a height of about 4,800 ft (1,460 m) before its eruption in 1991 (for the first time in 600 years). Its explosions produced a column of smoke and ash more than 19 mi (30 km) high and left some 100,000 people homeless and 300 dead. The ashfalls forced the evacuation and eventual closing of a nearby U.S. Air Force base. The eruption was one of the largest of the 20th century.

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Mountain peak, northeastern Greece. At 9,570 ft (2,917 m), it is the highest mountain in Greece. It is part of the Olympus range, lying on the border between Macedonia and Thessaly, near the Gulf of Salonika. The summit is snowcapped and often has cloud cover. In ancient Greece, it was regarded as the abode of the gods and the site of the throne of Zeus.

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Limestone ridge, east of Jerusalem. Frequently mentioned in the Bible, it is holy both in Judaism and in Christianity. Politically it is part of the municipality of Greater Jerusalem under Israeli administration. Its slopes have been the most sacred burial ground in Judaism for centuries. The peak generally regarded as the Mount of Olives is 2,652 ft (808 m) in elevation. Nearby is the site held by tradition to be the Garden of Gethsemane, which is associated with the betrayal and Crucifixion of Jesus.

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(born Nov. 26, 1807, Setauket, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 19, 1868, Setauket) U.S. painter. He was apprenticed at 17 to his older brother as a sign painter. After studying drawing at the National Academy of Design, he painted historical subjects, but he later turned to genre painting and achieved immediate success with such works as Rustic Dance After a Sleigh Ride (1830). His portrayals of country life, affectionate and humorous without being sentimental, are a valuable record of his time. He was one of the first and most notable U.S. genre painters.

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Astronomical observatory located atop Mount Wilson, near Pasadena, California, U.S. Founded in 1904 by George Ellery Hale (1868–1938), it was operated jointly with Palomar Observatory as Hale Observatories (1948–80). Its largest optical telescope, with a diameter of 100 in. (2.5 m), enabled Edwin Hubble and his associates to discover evidence of an expanding universe and to estimate its size.

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Peak in the Sierra Nevada, southeast-central California, U.S. Located in Sequoia National Park, it is 14,494 ft (4,418 m) high, the highest point in the continental U.S. outside of Alaska. It was first climbed in 1873.

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Peak in the Presidential Range of the White Mountains, northern New Hampshire. Reaching an elevation of 6,288 ft (1,917 m), it is the highest point in the northeastern U.S. and is noted for its extreme weather conditions; the world's highest wind velocity (231 mph [372 kph]) was recorded there in 1934. It is the site of Mount Washington Observatory. The area is included in the White Mountain National Forest.

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Home and burial place of George Washington. It is located in northern Virginia, U.S., on the Potomac River near Washington, D.C. The estate was inherited by Washington in 1752. Near the 18th-century Georgian mansion is a plain brick tomb, built at Washington's direction, that holds his remains and those of his wife and several family members. After the U.S. government declined to buy it, in 1858 the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union raised $200,000 and purchased the house and 200 acres (80 hectares) of the estate; the association still maintains the site.

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Peak, Cascade Range, northern California, U.S. A double-peaked extinct volcano 14,162 ft (4,317 m) high, Mount Shasta dominates the landscape for a hundred miles. The several glaciers on its slopes are popular with skiers and climbers. The first ascent was made in 1854.

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Colossal sculpture, Black Hills, southwestern South Dakota, U.S. Sculptures of the heads of presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln are carved on the granite face of the mountain, which is 5,725 ft (1,745 m) high. The four heads, each about 60 ft (18 m) high, represent, respectively, the nation's independence, democratic process, leadership in world affairs, and equality. The memorial was dedicated in 1927. Work on it was carried out during 1927–41 under the direction of Gutzon Borglum.

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Mountain, west-central Washington state, U.S. At 14,410 ft (4,392 m), Mount Rainier is the highest point in the Cascade Range and in the state. The mountain is actually a dormant volcano that last erupted some 150–175 years ago; it covers 100 sq mi (260 sq km) and is surrounded by the largest single-mountain glacier system in the continental U.S., with 41 glaciers radiating from the broad summit. It forms the centre of Mount Rainier National Park, which was established in 1899 and comprises 368 sq mi (953 sq km). It is a popular tourist and recreation area.

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Volcano, western Luzon, Philippines. Located about 55 mi (90 km) northwest of Manila, it rose to a height of about 4,800 ft (1,460 m) before its eruption in 1991 (for the first time in 600 years). Its explosions produced a column of smoke and ash more than 19 mi (30 km) high and left some 100,000 people homeless and 300 dead. The ashfalls forced the evacuation and eventual closing of a nearby U.S. Air Force base. The eruption was one of the largest of the 20th century.

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Peak, western North Carolina, U.S. The highest U.S. peak east of the Mississippi River, it rises to 6,684 ft (2,037 m). It is situated in North Carolina's Black Mountains, part of the Blue Ridge system, within Mount Mitchell State Park and the Pisgah National Forest. Formerly called Black Dome, it was renamed for Elisha Mitchell, who surveyed it as the highest point in the eastern U.S. in 1835; he died on the mountain and is buried at its summit.

Learn more about Mitchell, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Athabascan Denali

Highest mountain in North America. Located near the centre of the Alaska Range in south-central Alaska, U.S., and in Denali National Park, it rises to 20,320 ft (6,194 m). The northern peak was first scaled in 1910, and in 1913 Hudson Stuck and Harry Karstens ascended the southern peak, the true summit. It was named Densmores Peak in 1889 after a prospector but was renamed in 1896 in honour of Pres. William McKinley.

Learn more about McKinley, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Peak, St. Elias Mountains, southwestern Yukon Territory, Canada, near the Alaskan boundary. Reaching 19,524 ft (5,951 m), it is the highest mountain in Canada and is second in North America only to Mount McKinley. It is located in Kluane National Park, which occupies 8,500 sq mi (22,000 sq km). The summit was first reached in 1925. The peak was named for William Logan, founder of the Geological Survey of Canada.

Learn more about Logan, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Peak, southeastern New South Wales, Australia. Located in the Snowy Mountains of the Australian Alps, Mount Kosciusko is the highest mountain in mainland Australia, reaching 7,310 ft (2,228 m). It is located in Kosciusko National Park, which has an area of 2,498 sq mi (6,469 sq km); it is near Mounts Townsend, Twynam, North Ramshead, and Carruthers, whose melting snows feed the rivers and reservoirs that make up the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme. The mountain was named in 1840 in honour of Tadeusz Kosciuszko.

Learn more about Kosciusko, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Swahili Kirinyaga

Extinct volcano, central Kenya. Lying just south of the Equator and rising to 17,058 ft (5,199 m), it is the highest mountain in Kenya. The first European to discover the mountain was Johann Ludwig Krapf in 1849. Mount Kenya National Park, occupying an area of 277 sq mi (718 sq km), contains a variety of large animals, including elephants and buffalo. The town of Nanyuki lies at the mountain's northwestern foot and is the chief base for ascents.

Learn more about Kenya, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Peak, northwestern Oregon, U.S. Located in the Cascade Range at 11,235 ft (3,424 m), it is an extinct volcano that last erupted circa 1865. The snowcapped peak, the highest mountain in the state, is the focal point of Mount Hood National Forest, a popular tourist and recreation area.

Learn more about Hood, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Private liberal arts college for women in South Hadley, Mass. Founded by Mary Lyon as a female seminary in 1837, it was one of the first institutions of higher education for women in the U.S. Baccalaureate courses are taught in the humanities, science and mathematics, and social sciences. Mount Holyoke is part of an educational consortium with Amherst, Hampshire, and Smith colleges and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

Learn more about Mount Holyoke College with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Arabic Jabal al-Shaykh

Snowcapped mountain on the Lebanese-Syrian border. Located west of Damascus and rising to 9,232 ft (2,814 m), it is the highest point on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea and is sometimes considered the southernmost extension of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains. A sacred landmark in Hittite, Palestinian, and Roman times, it represented the northwestern limit of Israelite conquest under Moses and Joshua. Since the Six-Day War (1967), about 40 sq mi (100 sq km) of its southern and western slopes have been part of the Israeli-administered Golan Heights.

Learn more about Hermon, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

or Fujiyama Japanese Fuji-san

Mountain, central Japan. The highest mountain in Japan, it rises to 12,388 ft (3,776 m) near the Pacific coast in central Honshu. Mount Fuji, with its graceful volcanic cone (dormant since 1707), has become famous internationally. It is considered a sacred symbol of Japan, and thousands of Japanese climb to the shrine on its peak every summer. The mountain is the major feature of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, created in 1936.

Learn more about Fuji, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Tibetan Chomolungma Nepali Sagarmatha

Peak on the crest of the Himalayas, southern Asia. The highest point on Earth, with a summit at 29,035 ft (8,850 m), it lies on the border between Nepal and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Numerous attempts to climb Everest were made from 1921; the summit was finally reached by Edmund Hillary of New Zealand and Tenzing Norgay of Nepal in 1953. In dispute is whether the English explorer George Mallory, whose body was discovered below Everest's peak in 1999, had actually reached the peak earlier, in 1924, and was descending it when he died. The formerly accepted elevation of 29,028 ft (8,848 m), established in the early 1950s, was recalculated in the late 1990s.

Learn more about Everest, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Active volcano, eastern coast of Sicily, Italy. The highest active volcano in Europe, its elevation is more than 10,000 ft (3,200 m); its base has a circumference of about 93 mi (150 km). Mount Etna has repeatedly erupted over the centuries, most violently in 1669, when the lava flow destroyed villages on the lower slope and submerged part of the town of Catania. Activity was almost continuous in the decade following 1971, and in 1983 an eruption that lasted four months prompted authorities to explode dynamite in an attempt to divert lava flows. Mount Etna also experienced violent eruptions in 2001–02, prompting the Italian government to declare a state of emergency.

Learn more about Etna, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Extinct volcano on the Kenya-Uganda border. Located northeast of Lake Victoria, its crater, about 5 mi (8 km) in diameter, contains several peaks, of which Wagagai, at 14,178 ft (4,321 m), is the highest. The Bantu-speaking Gishu (Gisu) occupy the mountain's western slopes.

Learn more about Elgon, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Peak, Caucasus Mountains, southwestern Russia. The highest peak in the Caucasus, it is an extinct volcano with twin cones reaching elevations of 18,510 ft (5,642 m) and 18,356 ft (5,595 m). There are many mineral springs along its descending streams, while 53 sq mi (138 sq km) of Elbrus is covered by 22 glaciers. It is a major centre for mountaineering and tourism.

Learn more about Elbrus, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Volcanic massif, Cameroon. Rising to 13,435 feet (4,095 metres), it is the highest peak in West Africa. Extending 14 miles (23 km) inland from the Gulf of Guinea, it is the westernmost extension of a series of mountains that form a natural boundary between Cameroon and Nigeria. Richard Burton climbed its summit in 1861. The volcano remains active.

Learn more about Cameroon, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Japanese Aso-san

Volcanic mountain, central Kyushu island, Japan. The highest of its five peaks is about 5,223 ft (1,592 m) tall. It has one of the largest active craters in the world, measuring 71 mi (114 km) in circumference; its caldera marks the original crater and contains an active volcano and hot springs. The crater is inhabited; its pastures are used for cattle raising and dairy farming. The volcano is at the centre of Aso-Kuju National Park.

Learn more about Aso, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Peak, western North Carolina, U.S. The highest U.S. peak east of the Mississippi River, it rises to 6,684 ft (2,037 m). It is situated in North Carolina's Black Mountains, part of the Blue Ridge system, within Mount Mitchell State Park and the Pisgah National Forest. Formerly called Black Dome, it was renamed for Elisha Mitchell, who surveyed it as the highest point in the eastern U.S. in 1835; he died on the mountain and is buried at its summit.

Learn more about Mitchell, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Athabascan Denali

Highest mountain in North America. Located near the centre of the Alaska Range in south-central Alaska, U.S., and in Denali National Park, it rises to 20,320 ft (6,194 m). The northern peak was first scaled in 1910, and in 1913 Hudson Stuck and Harry Karstens ascended the southern peak, the true summit. It was named Densmores Peak in 1889 after a prospector but was renamed in 1896 in honour of Pres. William McKinley.

Learn more about McKinley, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Peak, St. Elias Mountains, southwestern Yukon Territory, Canada, near the Alaskan boundary. Reaching 19,524 ft (5,951 m), it is the highest mountain in Canada and is second in North America only to Mount McKinley. It is located in Kluane National Park, which occupies 8,500 sq mi (22,000 sq km). The summit was first reached in 1925. The peak was named for William Logan, founder of the Geological Survey of Canada.

Learn more about Logan, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Peak, southeastern New South Wales, Australia. Located in the Snowy Mountains of the Australian Alps, Mount Kosciusko is the highest mountain in mainland Australia, reaching 7,310 ft (2,228 m). It is located in Kosciusko National Park, which has an area of 2,498 sq mi (6,469 sq km); it is near Mounts Townsend, Twynam, North Ramshead, and Carruthers, whose melting snows feed the rivers and reservoirs that make up the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme. The mountain was named in 1840 in honour of Tadeusz Kosciuszko.

Learn more about Kosciusko, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Swahili Kirinyaga

Extinct volcano, central Kenya. Lying just south of the Equator and rising to 17,058 ft (5,199 m), it is the highest mountain in Kenya. The first European to discover the mountain was Johann Ludwig Krapf in 1849. Mount Kenya National Park, occupying an area of 277 sq mi (718 sq km), contains a variety of large animals, including elephants and buffalo. The town of Nanyuki lies at the mountain's northwestern foot and is the chief base for ascents.

Learn more about Kenya, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Peak, northwestern Oregon, U.S. Located in the Cascade Range at 11,235 ft (3,424 m), it is an extinct volcano that last erupted circa 1865. The snowcapped peak, the highest mountain in the state, is the focal point of Mount Hood National Forest, a popular tourist and recreation area.

Learn more about Hood, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Arabic Jabal al-Shaykh

Snowcapped mountain on the Lebanese-Syrian border. Located west of Damascus and rising to 9,232 ft (2,814 m), it is the highest point on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea and is sometimes considered the southernmost extension of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains. A sacred landmark in Hittite, Palestinian, and Roman times, it represented the northwestern limit of Israelite conquest under Moses and Joshua. Since the Six-Day War (1967), about 40 sq mi (100 sq km) of its southern and western slopes have been part of the Israeli-administered Golan Heights.

Learn more about Hermon, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

or Fujiyama Japanese Fuji-san

Mountain, central Japan. The highest mountain in Japan, it rises to 12,388 ft (3,776 m) near the Pacific coast in central Honshu. Mount Fuji, with its graceful volcanic cone (dormant since 1707), has become famous internationally. It is considered a sacred symbol of Japan, and thousands of Japanese climb to the shrine on its peak every summer. The mountain is the major feature of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, created in 1936.

Learn more about Fuji, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Tibetan Chomolungma Nepali Sagarmatha

Peak on the crest of the Himalayas, southern Asia. The highest point on Earth, with a summit at 29,035 ft (8,850 m), it lies on the border between Nepal and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Numerous attempts to climb Everest were made from 1921; the summit was finally reached by Edmund Hillary of New Zealand and Tenzing Norgay of Nepal in 1953. In dispute is whether the English explorer George Mallory, whose body was discovered below Everest's peak in 1999, had actually reached the peak earlier, in 1924, and was descending it when he died. The formerly accepted elevation of 29,028 ft (8,848 m), established in the early 1950s, was recalculated in the late 1990s.

Learn more about Everest, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Active volcano, eastern coast of Sicily, Italy. The highest active volcano in Europe, its elevation is more than 10,000 ft (3,200 m); its base has a circumference of about 93 mi (150 km). Mount Etna has repeatedly erupted over the centuries, most violently in 1669, when the lava flow destroyed villages on the lower slope and submerged part of the town of Catania. Activity was almost continuous in the decade following 1971, and in 1983 an eruption that lasted four months prompted authorities to explode dynamite in an attempt to divert lava flows. Mount Etna also experienced violent eruptions in 2001–02, prompting the Italian government to declare a state of emergency.

Learn more about Etna, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Extinct volcano on the Kenya-Uganda border. Located northeast of Lake Victoria, its crater, about 5 mi (8 km) in diameter, contains several peaks, of which Wagagai, at 14,178 ft (4,321 m), is the highest. The Bantu-speaking Gishu (Gisu) occupy the mountain's western slopes.

Learn more about Elgon, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Peak, Caucasus Mountains, southwestern Russia. The highest peak in the Caucasus, it is an extinct volcano with twin cones reaching elevations of 18,510 ft (5,642 m) and 18,356 ft (5,595 m). There are many mineral springs along its descending streams, while 53 sq mi (138 sq km) of Elbrus is covered by 22 glaciers. It is a major centre for mountaineering and tourism.

Learn more about Elbrus, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Volcanic massif, Cameroon. Rising to 13,435 feet (4,095 metres), it is the highest peak in West Africa. Extending 14 miles (23 km) inland from the Gulf of Guinea, it is the westernmost extension of a series of mountains that form a natural boundary between Cameroon and Nigeria. Richard Burton climbed its summit in 1861. The volcano remains active.

Learn more about Cameroon, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Japanese Aso-san

Volcanic mountain, central Kyushu island, Japan. The highest of its five peaks is about 5,223 ft (1,592 m) tall. It has one of the largest active craters in the world, measuring 71 mi (114 km) in circumference; its caldera marks the original crater and contains an active volcano and hot springs. The crater is inhabited; its pastures are used for cattle raising and dairy farming. The volcano is at the centre of Aso-Kuju National Park.

Learn more about Aso, Mount with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Mount may refer to:

Displays and equipment

  • Lens mount, an interface used to fix a lens to a camera
  • Telescope mount, a device used to support a telescope
  • A fixed point for attaching equipment, such as a hardpoint on an airframe
  • The display of an item on a heavy backing such as foamcore
  • Preparing dead animals for display in taxidermy

Computing and software


, the utility in Unix-like operating systems which mounts file systems

Education

Other meanings

See also

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