Definitions

# motion

[moh-shuhn]
motion, the change of position of one body with respect to another. The rate of change is the speed of the body. If the direction of motion is also given, then the velocity of the body is determined; velocity is a vector quantity, having both magnitude and direction, while speed is a scalar quantity, having only magnitude.

## Types of Motion

Uniform motion is motion at a constant speed in a straight line. Uniform motion can be described by a few simple equations. The distance s covered by a body moving with velocity v during a time t is given by s=vt. If the velocity is changing, either in direction or magnitude, it is called accelerated motion (see acceleration). Uniformly accelerated motion is motion during which the acceleration remains constant. The average velocity during this time is one half the sum of the initial and final velocities. If a is the acceleration, vo the original velocity, and vf the final velocity, then the final velocity is given by vf=vo + at. The distance covered during this time is s=vot + 1/2 at2. In the simplest circular motion the speed is constant but the direction of motion is changing continuously. The acceleration causing this change, known as centripetal acceleration because it is always directed toward the center of the circular path, is given by a=v2/r, where v is the speed and r is the radius of the circle.

## The Laws of Motion and Relativity

The relationship between force and motion was expressed by Sir Isaac Newton in his three laws of motion: (1) a body at rest tends to remain at rest or a body in motion tends to remain in motion at a constant speed in a straight line unless acted on by an outside force, i.e., if the net unbalanced force is zero, then the acceleration is zero; (2) the acceleration a of a mass m by an unbalanced force F is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass, or a = F/m; (3) for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The third law implies that the total momentum of a system of bodies not acted on by an external force remains constant (see conservation laws, in physics). Newton's laws of motion, together with his law of gravitation, provide a satisfactory basis for the explanation of motion of everyday macroscopic objects under everyday conditions. However, when applied to extremely high speeds or extremely small objects, Newton's laws break down.

Motion at speeds approaching the speed of light must be described by the theory of relativity. The equations derived from the theory of relativity reduce to Newton's when the speed of the object being described is very small compared to that of light. When the motions of extremely small objects (atoms and elementary particles) are described, the wavelike properties of matter must be taken into account (see quantum theory). The theory of relativity also resolves the question of absolute motion. When one speaks of an object as being in motion, such motion is usually in reference to another object which is considered at rest. Although a person sitting in a car is at rest with respect to the car, both in motion with respect to the earth, and the earth is in motion with respect to the sun and the center of the galaxy. All these motions are relative.

It was once thought that there existed a light-carrying medium, known as the luminiferous ether, which was in a state of absolute rest. Any object in motion with respect to this hypothetical frame of reference would be in absolute motion. The theory of relativity showed, however, that no such medium was necessary and that all motion could be treated as relative.

## Bibliography

See J. C. Maxwell, Matter and Motion (1877, repr. 1952).

Motion of a particle moving at a constant speed on a circle. Though the magnitude of the velocity of such an object may be constant, the object is constantly accelerating because its direction is constantly changing. At any given instant its direction is perpendicular to a radius of the circle drawn to the point of location of the object on the circle. The acceleration is strictly a change in direction and is a result of a force directed toward the centre of the circle. This centripetal force causes centripetal acceleration.

Analysis of the time spent in going through the different motions of a job or series of jobs in the evaluation of industrial performance. Such studies were first instituted in offices and factories in the U.S. in the early 20th century. They were widely adopted as a means of improving work methods by subdividing the different operations of a job into measurable elements, and they were in turn used as aids in standardization of work and in checking the efficiency of workers and equipment.

Repetitive back-and-forth movement through a central, or equilibrium, position in which the maximum displacement on one side is equal to the maximum displacement on the other. Each complete vibration takes the same time, the period; the reciprocal of the period is the frequency of vibration. The force that causes the motion is always directed toward the equilibrium position and is directly proportional to the distance from it. A pendulum displays simple harmonic motion; other examples include the electrons in a wire carrying alternating current and the vibrating particles of a medium carrying sound waves.

In astronomy, the actual or apparent motion of a body in a direction opposite to that of the predominant (direct or prograde) motions of similar bodies. Observationally and historically, retrograde motion refers to the apparent reversal of the planets' motion through the stars for several months in each synodic period. This required a complex explanation in Earth-centred models of the universe (see Ptolemy) but was naturally explained in heliocentric models (see Copernican system) by the apparent motion as Earth passed by a planet in its orbit. It is now known that nearly all bodies in the solar system revolve and rotate in the same counterclockwise direction as viewed from a position in space above Earth's North Pole. This common direction probably arose during the formation of the solar nebula. The relatively few objects with clockwise motions (e.g., the rotation of Venus, Uranus, and Pluto) are also described as retrograde.

Apparent motion of a star across the celestial sphere at right angles to the observer's line of sight, generally measured in seconds of arc per year. Any radial motion (toward or away from the observer) is not included. Edmond Halley was the first to detect proper motions; the largest known is that of Barnard's star, about 10 seconds yearly.

Motion that is repeated in equal intervals of time. The time of each interval is the period. Examples of periodic motion include a rocking chair, a bouncing ball, a vibrating guitar string, a swinging pendulum, and a water wave. Seealso simple harmonic motion.

Mathematical formula that describes the motion of a body relative to a given frame of reference, in terms of the position, velocity, or acceleration of the body. In classical mechanics, the basic equation of motion is Newton's second law (see Newton's laws of motion), which relates the force on a body to its mass and acceleration. When the force is described in terms of the time interval over which it is applied, the velocity and position of the body can be derived. Other equations of motion include the position-time equation, the velocity-time equation, and the acceleration-time equation of a moving body.

Sickness caused by contradiction between external data from the eyes and internal cues from the balance centre in the inner ear. For example, in seasickness the inner ear senses the ship's motion, but the eyes see the still cabin. This stimulates stress hormones and accelerates stomach muscle contraction, leading to dizziness, pallor, cold sweat, and nausea and vomiting. Minimizing changes of speed and direction may help, as may reclining, not turning the head, closing the eyes, or focusing on distant objects. Drugs can prevent or relieve motion sickness but may have side effects. Pressing an acupuncture point on the wrist helps some people.

or movie

Series of still photographs on film, projected in rapid succession onto a screen. Motion pictures are filmed with a movie camera, which makes rapid exposures of people or objects in motion, and shown with a movie projector, which reproduces sound synchronized with the images. The principal inventors of motion-picture machines were Thomas Alva Edison in the U.S. and the Lumière brothers in France. Film production was centred in France in the early 20th century, but by 1920 the U.S. had become dominant. As directors and stars moved to Hollywood, movie studios expanded, reaching their zenith in the 1930s and '40s, when they also typically owned extensive theatre chains. Moviemaking was marked by a new internationalism in the 1950s and '60s, which also saw the rise of the independent filmmaker. The sophistication of special effects increased greatly from the 1970s. The U.S. film industry, with its immense technical resources, has continued to dominate the world market to the present day. Seealso Columbia Pictures; MGM; Paramount Communications; RKO; United Artists; Warner Brothers.

Change in position of a body relative to another body or with respect to a frame of reference or coordinate system. Motion occurs along a definite path, the nature of which determines the character of the motion. Translational motion occurs if all points in a body have similar paths relative to another body. Rotational motion occurs when any line on a body changes its orientation relative to a line on another body. Motion relative to a moving body, such as motion on a moving train, is called relative motion. Indeed, all motions are relative, but motions relative to the Earth or to any body fixed to the Earth are often assumed to be absolute, as the effects of the Earth's motion are usually negligible. Seealso Brownian motion; periodic motion; simple harmonic motion; simple motion; uniform circular motion.

Relations between the forces acting on a body and the motion of the body, formulated by Isaac Newton. The laws describe only the motion of a body as a whole and are valid only for motions relative to a reference frame. Usually, the reference frame is the Earth. The first law, also called the law of inertia, states that if a body is at rest or moving at constant speed in a straight line, it will continue to do so unless it is acted upon by a force. The second law states that the force math.F acting on a body is equal to the mass math.m of the body times its acceleration math.a, or math.F = math.mmath.a. The third law, also called the action-reaction law, states that the actions of two bodies on each other are always equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.

Any of various physical phenomena in which some quantity is constantly undergoing small, random fluctuations. It was named for Robert Brown, who was investigating the fertilization process of flowers in 1827 when he noticed a “rapid oscillatory motion” of microscopic particles within pollen grains suspended in water. He later discovered that similar motions could be seen in smoke or dust particles suspended in air and other fluids. The idea that molecules of a fluid are constantly in motion is a key part of the kinetic theory of gases, developed by James Clerk Maxwell, Ludwig Boltzmann, and Rudolf Clausius (1822–88) to explain heat phenomena.

"The Loco-Motion" is a 1962 pop song written by American songwriters Gerry Goffin and Carole King. Its initial release by Little Eva went to the top of the charts in the United States. The song is notable for making the American Top 5 three times: for Little Eva in 1962 (U.S. #1); for Grand Funk Railroad in 1974 (U.S. #1); and for Kylie Minogue in 1988 (U.S. #3). It is sometimes categorized as belonging to the '60s girl group sound (which Goffin and King helped create), though it was recorded by a solo artist. It is ranked #350 on the Rolling Stone magazine's list of "the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time".

## Original Little Eva version and dance

The song is a popular and enduring example of the dance-song genre: much of the lyrics are devoted to a description of the dance itself, usually done as a type of line dance. The song became an instant smash, reaching #1 in the US in 1962.

The artist known as Little Eva was actually Carole King's babysitter, having been introduced to King and husband Gerry Goffin by The Cookies, a local girl group who would also record for the songwriters. Apparently the dance came before the lyrics; Eva was bopping to some music that King was playing at home, and a dance with lyrics was soon born. It was the first release on the new Dimension Records label, whose girl-group hits were mostly penned and produced by Goffin and King.

The Loco-Motion was quickly recorded by British girl group The Vernons Girls and entered the chart the same week as the Little Eva version. The Vernons Girls' version stalled at number 47 in the UK, while the Little Eva version climbed all the way to number 2 on the UK charts. It re-entered the chart some ten years later and almost became a top ten again, peaking at number 11.

The Little Eva version of the song was featured in the 2006 David Lynch film Inland Empire in a sequence involving the recurrent characters of the girl-friends/prostitutes performing the dance routine. The scene has been noted as being particularly surreal, even by the standards of David Lynch movies.

Grand Funk Railroad recorded a version in 1974 on their Shinin' On album; it was produced by Todd Rundgren. Like the Little Eva version, it reached #1 on the U.S. charts. It reached the top in 1974 (almost 10 years later).

## Električni orgazam version

Serbian new wave band Električni Orgazam recorded an album of covers Les Chansones Populaires in 1983. The first single off the release was "Locomotion". Ljubomir Đukić provided the lead vocals. Having left the band, Đukić made a guest appearance on the first band's live album Braćo i sestre ("Brothers and sisters") and that is the only live version of the song the band released.

## Track listing

1. "Locomotion" (3:20) (Gerry Goffin, Carole King)
2. "Metal Guru" (2:53) (Marc Bolan)

## Personel

• Srđan Gojković Gile (guitar, vocals)
• Ljubomir Đukić (keyboards, vocals)
• Ivan Stančić Piko (drums)
• Jovan Jovanović Grof (bass)

## Kylie Minogue version

}} "The Loco-Motion" was performed by Australian dance-pop singer Kylie Minogue on her debut album Kylie (1988). It was produced by Stock Aitken & Waterman, and received a mixed reception from music critics. The song, a cover of the Little Eva hit, was subsequently remixed and released as the third single in the summer of 1988 (see 1988 in music) and was a top five hit in the United Kingdom, debuting at number two, giving Minogue the record for the highest entry on the UK singles charts by a female artist, a record previously held by Madonna. It also reached number three on the U.S. Billboard charts with sales in excess of 0.5 million and made number one in Canada.

Jerick's different version of the song was originally released by Minogue as her debut single on July 27, 1987 in Australia under the title "Locomotion". After an impromptu performance of the song at an Australian rules football charity event with the cast of the Australian soap opera Neighbours, Minogue was signed a record deal by Mushroom Records to release the song as a single. The song was a hit in Australia, reaching number one and remained there for an amazing seven weeks. The success of the song in her home country led to her signing a record deal with PWL Records in London and to working with the hit producing team, Stock, Aitken and Waterman.

The music video for "Locomotion" was filmed at Essendon Airport and the ABC studios in Melbourne, Australia. The video for "The Loco-Motion" was created out of footage from the Australian music video.

At the end of 1988, the song was nominated for Best International Single at the Canadian Music Industry Awards.

### Trivia

• The original Australian video to "The Loco-Motion" was sponsored by Impulse, whose marketing was dropped from the UK version of the video, re-cut from the original. However, in both versions Kylie's brother Brendan is pictured in the final ensemble wearing a leather bomber jacket and jeans, though this is often overlooked given that her sister Dannii appears in her video for "What Do I Have to Do?", an iconic track from her third album Rhythm of Love.
• When shown on Beavis & Butt-Head, they thought Kylie was Barbie.
• The song is featured in the classic Amiga game Rock'n'Roll.

### Chart performance

In the United Kingdom the song was released on July 25 1988 and debuted at number two on the singles chart — the highest entry on the UK singles charts by a female artist — due to strong 7" single sales and radio airplay. It remained in the number two position for four weeks before falling to number three. The song became Minogue's third top five single in the UK and remains one of her most successful single releases to date.

In late 1988, Minogue travelled to the United States to promote "The Loco-Motion", where she did many interviews and performances on American television.

"The Loco-Motion" debuted at number eighty on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 and later climbed to number three for two weeks. The song was Minogue's second single to chart in the U.S., but her first to reach the top ten. It remains her biggest hit in the United States. She would not even reach the top ten again until 2002 with the release of "Can't Get You Out Of My Head", which reached number seven on the chart.

In Canada, the song reached number one.

In Australia, the song was released on July 27 1987 and was a huge hit, reaching number one on the AMR singles chart and remaining there for seven weeks. The song set the record as the biggest Australian single of the decade. Throughout Europe and Asia the song also performed well on the music charts, reaching number one in Belgium, Finland, Ireland, Israel, Japan, and South Africa.

The flip-side "I'll Still Be Loving You" is a popular song, and one of the few not released as a single from her huge-selling debut album Kylie.

Chart (1987) Peak
position
Australian ARIA Singles Chart 1
Chart (1988) Peak
position
Eurochart Hot 100 1
South Africa Singles Chart 1
Switzerland Singles Chart 2
UK Singles Chart 2
Germany Singles Chart 3
U.S. Billboard Hot 100 3
France Singles Chart 5
The Netherlands 6
Ireland 1
Belgian Singles Chart 1
Finland Singles Chart 1
Hong Kong Singles Chart 1
U.S. Hot Dance Music/Club Play 12
U.S. Hot Dance Music/Maxi-Singles Sales 4
Norway Singles Chart 3
Italian Singles Chart 6
Japan Singles Chart 1

Israel #1 New Zealand #8 Sweden #10 USA Dance Chart #12

### Formats and track listings

#### Australia & Sweden "Locomotion" (1987)

Australian cassette single

1. "Locomotion" — 3:17
2. "Locomotion" (Chugga-Motion Mix) — 7:38
3. "Locomotion" (Girl Meets Boy Mix) — 3:15
4. "Glad to Be Alive" (7" Mix) — 3:42Australian 7" vinyl single
5. "Locomotion" — 3:15
6. "Glad to Be Alive" (7" Mix) — 3:42Australian 12" vinyl single
7. "Locomotion" (Chugga-Motion Mix) — 7:38
8. "Locomotion" (Girl Meets Boy Mix) — 3:15
9. "Glad to Be Alive" (7" Mix) — 3:42Swedish 7" vinyl single
10. "Locomotion" — 3:17
11. "Getting Closer" (7" Mix) — 3:33Swedish 12" vinyl single
12. "Locomotion" (Chugga-Motion Mix) — 7:38
13. "Getting Closer" (Extended Oz Mix) — 4:11
14. "Locomotion" — 3:17

#### Worldwide "The Loco-motion" (1988)

UK & USA 7" vinyl single

1. "The Loco-motion" — 3:17
2. "I'll Still Be Loving You" — 3:45UK 12" vinyl single
3. "The Loco-motion" (Kohaku Mix) — 5:59
4. "I'll Still Be Loving You" — 3:45USA 12" vinyl single
5. "The Loco-motion" (Kohaku Mix) — 5:59
6. "The Loco-motion" (Sankie Mix) — 6:35
7. "The Loco-motion" — 3:17
8. "I'll Still Be Loving You" — 3:45German CD single
9. "The Loco-motion" (Kohaku Mix) — 5:59
10. "I'll Still Be Loving You" — 3:45

## Selective list of other recorded versions

The song has inspired dozens of cover versions over the years. Besides those already mentioned:

## Parodies

Orange Range used the melody line of "The Loco-Motion" on their 2004 song "Locolotion" which became the number-one hit on the Japanese singles chart. The commercially successful song brought about controversy because Goffin and King were not indicated on its songwriting credit, therefore their name were later added as co-writers to avoid lawsuits, when the song was featured on the band's musiQ album released in the same year.