Moseley, Henry Gwyn Jeffreys

Moseley, Henry Gwyn Jeffreys

Moseley, Henry Gwyn Jeffreys, 1887-1915, English physicist, grad. Trinity College, Oxford, 1910. He began his research under Ernest Rutherford while serving as lecturer at the Univ. of Manchester and soon devoted himself entirely to research. Extending the work of Max von Laue and of W. H. Bragg and W. L. Bragg on the X-ray spectra of elements, Moseley made systematic studies of the relation between the bright-line spectra of different elements. He found that the frequency of vibration of the X rays emitted by each element when bombarded with cathode rays bore a simple relationship to whole ordinal numbers. These ordinal numbers are the atomic numbers; Moseley concluded that the atomic number is equal to the charge on the nucleus. When the elements are arranged according to their atomic numbers the sequence, although almost the same as Mendeleev's arrangement in order of increasing atomic weight, differs slightly; these differences account for the few discrepancies inherent in the Mendeleev system (see periodic law). The genius of Moseley's work was widely recognized. He was killed at Gallipoli in World War I.

See biography by J. L. Heilbron (1974).

John Gwyn Jeffreys (18 January 180921 January 1885) was a British conchologist and malacologist.

He was born in Swansea into a propertied Welsh family. He went to London to qualify as a barrister, which he did. His greater passion however was for conchology. He was not satisfied simply to form a collection but was interested in all aspects of the biology of molluscs.

He retired from the law in 1856 and began a series of dredging operations aboard his yacht, Osprey, purchased from his brother-in-law. Accompanied by other specialists in marine life such as Edward Forbes (1815–1854), Charles William Peach (1800-1886), the Reverend Alfred Merle Norman (1831-1918), George Barlee (1794-1861), Edward Waller (1803-1873) and William Thompson (1805–1852), he dredged the seas around the Shetlands, the west of Scotland, the English Channel, the Irish Sea and Greenland. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society on 2 April 1840. He died in London in 1885. His collection of shells and specimens was bought by William Healey Dall (1845-1927) on behalf of the National Museum of Natural History.

He was the author of a number of books and articles on conchology and the mechanics of sea dredging; of particular note was British Conchology, or an account of the Mollusca which now inhabit the British Isles and the surrounding seas (five volumes, 1862 - 1865).

His grandson was the physicist Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley.

Sources

Translated from French Wikipedia

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