Morogoro lies at the base of the Uluguru Mountains, and is a centre of agriculture in the region, with the Sokoine University of Agriculture based in the city. A number of missions are also based in the town, providing schools and hospitals. The town is the administrative headquarters of the Morogoro region.
Morogoro is served by a station on the Central Railway of Tanzanian Railways.
Eighty percent of the Morogoro's water supply comes from the Mindu Dam on the Ngerengere River. The dam project, begun in 1978, has been surrounded by controversy. The new body of standing water has led to high rates of bilharzia infection , and mercury run-off from gold mining nearby the dam has caused pollution of the city's water supply . The dam is also being rapidly silted due to deforestation in the surrounding areas.