The Morini were a Belgic tribe in the time of the Roman Empire. We know little about their language but one of their cities, Boulogne-sur-Mer was called Bononia by Zosimus and Bonen in the Middle Ages. Zosimus mentioned the Low Germanic character of the city (Bononia germanorum). Their civitas during the Roman Empire was Terouanne (Terwaan), today in France. The region is known to be Flemish until the end of the Middle Ages.
Together with the Menapii they were mentioned in the Commentarii de Bello Gallico written by Julius Caesar.
The tribe's name Morini
is derived from the Proto-Indo-European
and either meant "sea" or "lake". The word occurs in most Proto-Indo-European languages either as *mori
. (see Armorica
). The proto-Flemish word for "polder
" is moer
). A French part of the region is called Les Moëres
. The name Morini
probably refers to salty marshes and not to the sea itself. The "-in" in Morini
is most probably a Germanic plural (similar to Old English
plural. see English plural
, section: Irregular -(e)n plurals
The Morini inhabited the low-lying plains and coastal wetlands awashed by tidal forces of the North Sea
in the historic Flanders
region (the province of West Flanders
) of western Belgium
and the present-day departments of Nord
of northernmost France. The word "Flanders" is a contraction of "flooded lands" and refers the north of the Morini territory.
Way of life
The Morini built their houses on the edges of the wet polders
, on reclaimed land drained away for expandable farming, and on man made hills in the polders called pol
. Remainders of those pols
can still be observed.
They were successful farmers as polders are very fertile. Traces were found of dikes. They traded with other tribes, like the ancient (Kentish) Britons of nearby Great Britain and the Batavi of present-day Holland.
Caesar was very interested in that part of the Morini territory where the crossing of the sea to Britannia
was "the shortest" , now known as the present-day region of Calais
. The Morini had several harbours of which Portus Itius
, the modern city of Boulogne
, was only one of them. Caesar wanted to induce mainly fear in the northern Morini so "that they wouldn't attack him. The territory of the Morini and Menapii
was well protected by marshes and woodland and suited for guerilla tactics. The dangers outweighed the benefits of subduing those economically less interesting regions. In 55 BC Labienus
tightened the Roman grip upon the strategically more important western side of the Morini tribal areas. In 54 BC Caesar let one legion, under the command of legate Caius Fabius, hibernate there. In 53 BC the Morini were joint most probably with the Menapii under the command of the Atrebate Commius. During the great Gallic rebellion led by Vercingetorix
, the Morini sent a contingent of some 5000 (or 7000?) men to the relief force which had to liberate Alesia
Caesar gave some interesting details: The tribe counted some pagi (subregions), which, apparently, could make their own decisions. The Morini fled into or behind the "moeren" and became unreachable for the Roman army. In 56 BC, when autumn was very wet, this tactic worked. The year after, which was much dryer, it failed. The Morini would have participated together with other coastal people (Lexovii, Namnetes, Ambiliati, Diablintes and Menapii) and tribes from Britain, in the uprising of the Veneti. Theoretically, the named people were involved in trade and transport to south Britain, an activity Caesar wanted for himself.
Although Caesar fought the Morini, he managed to conquer only a part of their territory around Calais. The rest of the Morini were annexed by emperor Augustus between the years 33-23 B.C. and their tribal lands became part of the Roman province of Belgae.
They were converted to Christianity by Saints Victoricus and Fuscian, but the region was re-evangelized by Saint Omer in the seventh century.
The tribe of the Morini persists today in the indigenous people of the modern Belgian province of West Flanders
, which corresponds closely to the ancient territory of the Morini. They speak a particular and difficult dialect ("West-Vlaams") of Dutch. According to Stephen Oppenheimer
their genetic signature is virtually identical to the people of south-east Britain (Kent