Air traffic management in the European Union is largely undertaken by member states, co-operating through EUROCONTROL, an intergovernmental organisation that includes both the EU member states and most other European states as well.
European air space is some of the busiest in the world, and the current system of air traffic management suffers from several inefficiencies, such as using air traffic control boundaries that follow national borders, and having large areas of European airspace reserved for military use when in fact they may not be needed.
In October 2001, the European Commission adopted proposals for a Single European Sky, to create a Community regulator for air traffic management within the EU, Norway and Switzerland. The Community regulator will merge upper European airspace, currently divided into national regions. It will organise this airspace uniformly, with air traffic control areas based on operational efficiency, not national borders. Also, it will integrate civil and military air traffic management.
On 9 June 2006 the ECAA agreement was signed by almost all of the 27 EU members, the European Community itself, Norway, Iceland, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo (UNMIK as Kosovo representative under Security Council resolution 1244). The last two EU member states to sign it were Slovakia and Latvia respectively on 13.06.2006 and 22.06.2006. Finally of the initially expected countries Serbia signed on 29.06.2006 and Montenegro on 05.07.2006. Currently the ratification process is ongoing in all of these countries (Hungary finished on 31.07.2006).
Further talks are expected with Switzerland, Turkey and probably the remaining EUROCONTROL members. With the Mediterranean countries are expected Euro-Mediterranean Aviation Agreements with similar content.