Definitions

montane forests

Knysna-Amatole montane forests

The Knysna-Amatole montane forests is a subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of South Africa. It covers an area of 3100 square kilometers (1200 square miles) in South Africa's Eastern Cape and Western Cape provinces.

Setting

The ecoregion, which is South Africa's smallest in area, covers two separate enclaves. The Knysna forest extends along the coast between 22°E and 25°E, generally along 34ºS in a region called the Garden Route. The KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic lies along the coast to the north-east. The Amatole forests lie in the Amatole mountains, which lie inland and 400km to the east of the Knysna forest.

The ecoregion has a subtropical/warm-temperate climate. Rainfall occurs year round, and ranges from 525 mm to 1220 mm per year in the Knysna forest, and from 750 mm to 1500 mm in the Amatole forests.

Flora

The trees are of tropical and afromontane origin, and include Ironwood (Olea capensis), Stinkwood (Ocotea bullata), Outeniqua Yellowwood (Afrocarpus falcatus), Real Yellowwood (Podocarpus latifolius), Cape Holly (Ilex mitis), White Pear (Apodytes dimidiata), Cape beech (Rapanea melanophloeos), Bastard Saffron (Cassine peragua), Cape Plane (Ochna arborea), assegai tree (Curtisia dentata), Kamassi (Gonioma kamassi), White Alder (Platylophus trifoliatus), and Red Alder (Cunonia capensis).

Fauna

In the forests, are home to African Elephant, African leopard, rock hyrax, and other mammals. It has an assortment of bird species as well as reptile, amphibians, and insects.

Human use and conservation

Despite the small size of the ecoregion, the Knysna and Amatole forests are South Africa's largest individual forests. The Knysna forest has been exploited for valuable timber since the 1700s, and the Amatole forests since the 1900s. Currently the forests are mostly within protected areas, although managed timber harvesting is allowed.

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