Modulate is Bob Mould's fifth solo album, released in 2002. Although a few tracks on his previous release, The Last Dog and Pony Show, had featured tape loops and samples, Mould shocked his fans with such a dramatic embrace of electronica. Rolling Stone magazine awarded the album 2 1/2 stars out of five, declaring: "Ultimately, this is a rock record with electronic effects, not a techno record with guitars, and it falls short of being totally satisfying as either."
Mould dubbed the tour supporting this album "The Carnival of Light and Sound." It featured him performing alone on stage, backed by prerecorded tracks as short films were projected on screens behind him.