Located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a co-educational American institution of higher education and one of the most competitive universities in the country. MIT currently consists of five schools and one undergraduate college. As of 2012, there are currently 1,018 professors, in addition to 720 teaching staff, and 10,894 enrolled students. The MIT "Engineers" compete in 33 sports, most of them at the NCAA Division III level. The university is not-for-profit and remains privately funded with an endowment of over eight billion dollars.
Established in 1861 as a response to the increased industrialization of America, William Barton Rogers, the university's first president, modeled the school after the more technically-oriented European polytechnic academies. The first students were admitted in 1865. Early on, MIT pioneered the education of science research and applied technical skills. The curriculum was later reformed by successive presidents to focus more on pure science and research activity rather than vocational training. By the 1950s the university expanded its programs in the liberal arts in order to compete with the larger educational market available post-war. The opening of the School of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences and later the Sloan School of Management witnessed MIT's growth to a modern, full-scale university.
The university has been shaped substantially by its partnering in government and industrial projects throughout the years. Most notably its involvement in World War II saw a vast expansion of its research and development capabilities and staff. MIT faculty had a hand in creating the microwave radar, digital computing and missile guidance systems, among many others. The university was also among the first of its kind to provide curriculum for architecture, electrical engineering, nuclear physics and artificial intelligence.The alumni and faculty of the university are among the most decorated in the United States, having been credited with 77 Nobel Prizes, 52 National Medals of Science and count among their ranks 45 Rhodes Scholars and 38 MacArthur Fellows.