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Chariots of Fire

For the instrumental theme see Chariots of Fire (instrumental).
"Chariots of Fire" is also an unrelated single by Bodies Without Organs.
Chariots of Fire is a British film released in 1981. Written by Colin Welland and directed by Hugh Hudson, it is based on the true story of British athletes preparing for and competing in the 1924 Summer Olympics. The film was nominated for seven Academy Awards and won four, including Best Picture.

The title is a reference to the line, "Bring me my chariot of fire," from the William Blake poem adapted into the hymn Jerusalem. The film's working title was "Running" until Welland saw the scene with the singing of the hymn and decided to change the title.

Synopsis

The movie is based on the true story of two British athletes competing in the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris. Englishman Harold Abrahams (Ben Cross), who is Jewish, overcomes anti-Semitism and class prejudice in order to compete against the "Flying Scotsman", Eric Liddell (Ian Charleson), in the 100 metre race.

In 1919, Abrahams enters Cambridge University. He attempts and succeeds at the Trinity Great Court run, which involves running around the court before the clock finishes striking 12. Meanwhile, Liddell sees running as a way of glorifying God before traveling to China to work as a missionary. He represents Scotland against Ireland, and preaches a sermon on "Life as a race" afterwards.

At their first meeting, Liddell shakes Abrahams' hand to wish him well, then beats him in a race. Abrahams takes it badly, but Sam Mussabini (Ian Holm), a professional trainer that he had approached earlier, offers to take him on to improve his technique. However, this attracts criticism from the college authorities.

Eric's sister Jennie (Cheryl Campbell) worries he is too busy running to concern himself with their mission, but Eric tells her he feels inspired: "I believe that God made me for a purpose... (the mission), but He also made me fast, and when I run, I feel His pleasure." Despite pressure from the Prince of Wales and the British Olympic committee, Liddell refuses to run a heat of the 100 metres at the Olympics because his Christian convictions prevent him from running on Sunday. To remedy the sensitive issue, his teammate Lord Andrew Lindsey (Nigel Havers) proposes to trade places with Liddell so that Lindsey would represent Great Britain in the 100m, while Liddell would instead compete in the 400 metre race on the following Thursday, thus averting his need to run on Sunday. Liddell at church on Sunday is seen quoting Isaiah 40, verse 31:

'But they that wait upon the shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run, and be not weary; and they shall walk, and not faint.'

The story compares the similar athletic experiences of Abrahams and Liddell while portraying their vastly different characters and reactions to adversity.

Historical accuracy

The film is mainly centred on Abrahams, and to maintain this focus many historical incidents are misrepresented.

The film depicts Abrahams as attending Caius College, Cambridge, with two other Olympic athletes, Aubrey Montague and Lord Andrew Lindsey. Montague did in fact compete in the Olympics, although little is known about him. The main source of information about Montague was a series of letters he wrote to his parents about his time at Cambridge and the Olympics; these letters were the basis of Montague's narration in the film.

The character of Lord Lindsey was loosely based on Lord Burghley, a significant figure in the history of British athletics. Although Burghley did attend Cambridge, he was not a contemporary of Harold Abrahams, as Abrahams was an undergraduate from 1919 to 1923 and Burghley was at Cambridge from 1923 to 1927. Burghley was still living at the time of the film, and it was a notable historical inaccuracy in the script which reportedly led him to refuse permission for his name to be used in the film. One scene in the film recreates a race in which the runners attempt to run round the perimeter of the Great Court at Trinity College, Cambridge in the time it takes the clock to strike 12 at midday. The film shows Abrahams performing the feat for the first time in history. In fact, at the time of filming the only person known to have succeeded was Lord Burghley in 1927 (the feat has since been accomplished by Sebastian Coe and Steve Cram, whom Coe beat in a charity race in October 1988 and by Sam Dobin in 2007).

The film also takes liberties with the events at the 1924 Olympics itself, most notably the events surrounding Liddell's refusal to race on a Sunday. In the film, he only learns on boarding the boat to Paris that one of the heats is to be held on the Sabbath. In fact, the schedule was made public several months in advance, and Liddell spent the remaining months training for the 400 metres, an event in which he had previously excelled. The film depicts Lord Lindsey, having already won a medal in the 400 metre hurdles, giving up his place in the 400 metres for Liddell. In fact Burghley was eliminated in the heats of the 110 hurdles (he would go on to win a gold medal in the 1928 Olympics), and Lindsey's deference to Liddell in the 400 was entirely fabricated.

The film does not mention the further exploits of the protagonists at the Olympics. After winning the 100 metres, Abrahams also reached the final of the 200 metres but finished last. This is hinted at in the film during the athletic montage which accompanies Liddell's Sunday sermon in Paris, with Mussabini scolding Abrahams ("Juvenile!") for rocking backward at the start; and, during the scene where Abrahams speaks with his friend Montague ("You are my most complete man") while receiving a massage from Mussabini, there is a French newspaper clipping showing Scholz and Paddock with a headline which, when translated, states that the 200 metres was a triumph for the United States. In the same conversation, Abrahams laments getting "beaten out of sight" in the 200.

Eric Liddell also ran in the 200m and finished third (behind Paddock and gold medal winner Jackson Scholz). (This was the only time that Liddell and Abrahams competed in the same race. Their meeting in the 1923 AAA Championship in the film was fictitious, though Liddell's win spurred Abrahams to train even harder.) As an opening runner for the 4 x 100 metres relay team, Abrahams won a silver medal (see article on 1924 Olympics.)

Other historical inaccuracies include:

In the film, the 100m bronze medallist is a fictional character called "Tom Watson"; the real medallist was Arthur Porritt of New Zealand, who refused permission for his name to be used in the film, allegedly out of modesty. His wish was accepted by the film's producers, even though his permission was not necessary.

In the film, Liddell is tripped up by a Frenchman in the 400 metre event of a ScotlandFrance international athletic meeting. He recovers, makes up a 20 metre deficit, and wins. This was based on fact, though his achievement was in fact even greater, as he had already won the 100- and 220-yard events that day.

It omits the fact that it was Liddell who introduced Abrahams to Sam Mussabini.

Production details

Filming locations

The famous beach scenes associated with the theme tune were filmed at West Sands, St. Andrews (the last scene of the opening titles crosses the 1st and 18th holes at St. Andrews Golf Course); a plaque commemorating the filming can be found there today. The scene at Trinity College, Cambridge was actually filmed at Eton College. Liverpool Town Hall was the setting for the scenes depicting the British Embassy in Paris. The Colombes Olympic Stadium was represented by The Oval Sports Centre, Bebington, Merseyside. The nearby Woodside ferry terminal was used to represent the scenes set in Dover. Other scenes were filmed at Birchington, Kent. A scene depicting a performance of HMS Pinafore was filmed in the Savoy Theatre with members of the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company, which lead to a small inaccuracy-the costumes worn by the performers were designed several years after the historical events depicted in the film.

Music

Although the film is a period piece, set in the 1920s, the Academy Award-winning original soundtrack composed by Vangelis uses a modern, 1980's electronic sound with a strong use of synthesizer and piano among other instruments. This was a bold and significant departure from earlier period films which employed sweeping orchestral instrumentals.

The title theme of the film has become iconic and has been used in subsequent films and television shows during slow-motion.

The film also incorporates a traditional work: a British choir singing "Jerusalem" at the 1978 funeral of Harold Abrahams, the event which 'bookends' the film and which inspired its title. Gilbert and Sullivan also features heavily.

Cast

Starring

Supporting Cast

Ratings

The film is rated PG in the UK for thematic elements. In the US, to avoid the initial child's G rating which might have hindered sales, Puttnam dubbed in an obscenity in order to be awarded a PG rating.

Awards and recognition

Academy Awards (1981)

Chariots of Fire was very successful at the Academy Awards. When he accepted his Oscar for Best Original Screenplay Colin Welland famously announced "The British are coming"

Cannes Film Festival (1981)

  • Best Supporting Actor - Ian Holm - won
  • Prize of the Ecumenical Jury - Special Mention - Hugh Hudson - won
  • Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) - Hugh Hudson - nominated

BAFTA Awards (1981)

Popular lists

References in popular culture

  • During the 1984 Summer Olympic Games, an American Express credit card commercial ("Don't leave home without it") included Ben Cross and the 87-year-old Jackson Scholz. When Cross says something about beating Scholz, the latter remarks with mock indignation, "You never beat me!" Proving he is "still pretty fast," Scholz beats Cross to the draw in picking up the tab with his credit card.
  • The English rugby league player Martin Offiah was nicknamed "Chariots," after the film.
  • One Wile E. Coyote and Road Runner short is called Chariots of Fur.
  • On Sesame Street, one segment of Monsterpiece Theater was called "Chariots of Fur"; it involved Grover and Herry Monster having a race down the beach.
  • In one episode of Two and a Half Men, Alan Harper (Jon Cryer) is running on a beach (He has insomnia and his brother suggests exercise). He does a parody of Chariots of Fire, before being mistaken for a burglar and being picked up by the police.
  • In Mr. Mom, Jack Butler (Michael Keaton) competes in a company-sponsored decathlon, which is seen in slow motion to the famous Chariots of Fire theme.
  • In National Lampoon's Vacation, Clark and Rusty Griswold (Chevy Chase and Anthony Michael Hall respectively) are seen running through the Walley-World parking lot (in slow motion) to the famous Chariots of Fire theme.
  • In Bruce Almighty, Bruce Nolan (Jim Carrey) is covering a news story on Buffalo's Biggest Cookie. He tells the camera to "cue the cheesy inspirational music", to which the movie enters a slow motion version of Bruce attempting to throw milk into a line of children's cups, all while the theme from Chariots of Fire plays in the background. He fails miserably, drenching them in the milk.
  • In Season 4 of SCTV, the movie is spoofed as "Chariots of Eggs," presented as a series of clips from a movie written and directed by comic Bobby Bittman. Though still a period piece set in the world of track and field, in the spoof the event is an egg-and-spoon race and the runners are played by musical guests Hall & Oates. They square off against Andrea Martin and Catherine O'Hara, who parody the lesbian overtones in the track-and-field film Personal Best, The spoof is available in Volume 3 of SCTV DVD series.
  • In Good Burger, Kenan and Kel run to the theme song when they deliver a burger to Shaquille O'Neal.
  • In the 1983 arcade game Track & Field, whenever a game over happens and the screen cuts to the high score table, the Chariots of Fire theme can be heard.
  • The teaser trailer for the 2008 film Marley and Me uses the famed theme music.
  • Joe Biden said Chariots of Fire was his favourite movie.

See also

Notes

External links

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