It is named after Royallieu, an area of forest close to the town of Compiègne. This was the location of the stables used by Frédéric de Lagrange, a successful racehorse owner and breeder in the late 19th century. The original version of the Prix de Royallieu was open to horses of either gender aged three-years-old or above. It was contested over 3,000 metres and took place at Longchamp in late October. In 1922 the race was restricted to three-year-old fillies, and its distance was cut to 2,600 metres.
During the early part of World War II, in 1939 and 1940, the Prix de Royallieu was cancelled. In 1941 and 1942 the venue of the race was temporarily switched to Tremblay, where it was run over 2,500 metres. The distance was restored to 2,600 metres when the event returned to Longchamp in 1943.
The Prix de Royallieu was opened to older fillies and mares in 1965. When the present system of race grading was introduced in the early 1970s, the event was given Group 3 status. The present distance, 2,500 metres, was introduced in 1972.
In 1988 the race was promoted to Group 2 level. Also at this time it was moved to its present calendar position – the Saturday of the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe weekend. The "Arc" itself takes place on the first Sunday in October.
The fastest winning time in the Prix de Royallieu over its present distance is 2m 37.5s. This was recorded by Mouramara in 2000.
| Year|| Winner|| Age|| Jockey|| Trainer|| Owner|| Time|
|1980||Mariella||3||Philippe Paquet||François Boutin||Gerry Oldham|
|1981||Don't Sulk||3||Philippe Paquet||François Boutin||Stavros Niarchos|
|1982||Gipsy Road||3||Cash Asmussen||François Boutin||Peter Goulandris|
|1983||High Hawk||3||Willie Carson||John Dunlop||Sheikh Mohammed||2:39.9|
|1984||Euliya||3||Yves Saint-Martin||Alain de Royer-Dupré||HH Aga Khan IV||2:47.8|
|1985||Mersey||3||Eric Legrix||Patrick Biancone||Daniel Wildenstein||2:41.0|
|1986||Sharaniya||3||Yves Saint-Martin||Alain de Royer-Dupré||HH Aga Khan IV||2:40.4|
|1987||Her Highness||3||Richard Briard||Georges Bridgland||Georges Bridgland||2:46.3|
|1988||Summer Trip||3||Alfred Gibert||John Fellows||Robin Scully||2:41.6|
|1989||Passionaria||3||Cash Asmussen||John Hammond||D. M. Kendall||2:38.9|
|1990||Madame Dubois||3||Pat Eddery||Henry Cecil||Cliveden Stud||2:42.6|
|1991||Saganeca||3||Gérald Mossé||Antonio Spanu||Ecurie Matemy Farm||2:41.9|
|1992||Fabulous Hostess||4||Olivier Doleuze||Criquette Head||Jacques Wertheimer||2:53.8|
|1993||Halesia||4||Dominique Boeuf||Elie Lellouche||Enrique Sarasola||2:49.0|
|1994||Dalara||3||Gérald Mossé||Alain de Royer-Dupré||HH Aga Khan IV||2:42.2|
|1995||Russian Snows||3||Michael Kinane||John Oxx||Sheikh Mohammed||2:47.0|
|1996||Annaba||3||Frankie Dettori||John Gosden||Sheikh Mohammed||2:43.2|
|1997||Tulipa||4||Frankie Dettori||Saeed bin Suroor||Godolphin||2:39.4|
|1998||Lexa||4||Dominique Boeuf||Helena van Zuylen||Baron Thierry van Zuylen||2:44.8|
|1999||Fairy Queen||3||Sylvain Guillot||Saeed bin Suroor||Godolphin||3:03.8|
|2000||Mouramara||3||Gérald Mossé||John Oxx||HH Aga Khan IV||2:37.5|
|2001||Moon Queen||3||Frankie Dettori||Jean-Claude Rouget||Joseph Allen||2:49.3|
|2002||Dance Routine||3||Christophe Soumillon||André Fabre||Khalid Abdullah||2:39.4|
|2003||Moon Search||4||Christophe Soumillon||André Fabre||Khalid Abdullah||2:48.6|
|2004||Samando||4||Stéphane Pasquier||François Doumen||Hans Wirth||2:39.4|
|2005||Oiseau Rare||3||Christophe Soumillon||André Fabre||Bethy Lagardère||2:40.3|
|2006||Montare||4||Olivier Peslier||Jonathan Pease||George Strawbridge||2:39.5|
|2007||Anna Pavlova||4||Frankie Dettori||Richard Fahey||Galaxy Racing||2:41.3|
|2008||Balladeuse||3||Olivier Peslier||André Fabre||Wertheimer et Frère||2:38.3|