) was a common year starting on Sunday
(link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar
(or a common year starting on Friday
of the 12-day slower Julian calendar
Events of 1865
January - March
April - June
- May 1 - The Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay against Paraguay is formally signed; the War of the Triple Alliance has already begun.
- May 4 - American Civil War: Lieutenant General Richard Taylor, commanding all Confederate forces in Alabama, Mississippi, and eastern Louisiana, surrenders his forces to Union General E.R.S. Canby at Citronelle, Alabama, effectively ending all Confederate resistance east of the Mississippi.
- May 5
- May 10 - American Civil War: Jefferson Davis is captured by Union troops near Irwinville, Georgia.
- May 13 - American Civil War - Battle of Palmito Ranch: In far south Texas, more than a month after Confederate General Lee's surrender, the last land battle of the civil war ends with a Confederate victory.
- May 23 - Union troops parade down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, DC to celebrate the end of the American Civil War.
- May 25 - Mobile magazine explosion: 300 are killed in Mobile, Alabama when an ordnance depot explodes.
- June 2 - American Civil War: Confederate forces west of the Mississippi under General Edmund Kirby Smith surrender at Galveston, Texas, becoming the last to do so.
- June 11 - Battle of Riachuelo: The Brazilian Navy squadron defeats the Paraguayan Navy.
July - September
- July - The Christian Mission, later renamed the Salvation Army, is founded in Whitechapel, London by William and Catherine Booth.
- July 4 - Lewis Carroll publishes Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
- July 5
- July 7 - Following Abraham Lincoln's assassination on April 14, the 4 conspirators condemned to death during the trial are hanged, including David Herold, George Atzerodt, Lewis Payne and Mary Surratt. Her son, John Surratt, escapes execution by fleeing to Canada, and ultimately to Egypt.
- July 14 - The summit of the Matterhorn in the Alps is reached for the first time; 4 of the party of 7 die in a fall during the descent.
October - December
- October 11 - Paul Bogle leads hundreds of black men and women in a march in Jamaica, starting the Morant Bay rebellion.
- October 25 - The paddlewheel steamer SS Republic sinks off the Georgia coast, with a cargo of $400,000 in coins.
- November 10 - Major Henry Wirz, the superintendent of a prison camp in Andersonville, Georgia, is hanged, becoming the only American Civil War soldier to be executed for war crimes.
- November 26 - Battle of Papudo: The Spanish ship Covadonga is captured by the Chileans and the Peruvians, north of Valparaiso, Chile.
- December 10 - Léopold II becomes King of the Belgians.
- December 11 - The U.S. Congress creates the House Appropriations Committee and the Committee on Banking and Commerce, reducing the tasks of the Committee on Ways and Means.
- December 18 - The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (which forever abolishes slavery) is declared ratified by 3/4 of the states of the United States.
- December 21 - The Kappa Alpha Order is founded at Washington College.
- December 24 - Several US Civil War Confederate veterans form the Ku Klux Klan, to resist Reconstruction and intimidate "carpetbaggers" and "scalawags", as well as to repress the freed slaves.
January - June
- January 5 - Julio Garavito Armero, Colombian astronomer (d. 1920)
- January 10 - Mary Amelia Ingalls, blind older sister of author Laura Ingalls Wilder (d. October 20, 1928)
- January 27 - Nikolai Pokrovsky, Russian politician and last foreign minister of the Russian Empire (d. 1930)
- February 28 - Alexander Henderson, American businessman (d. 1925)
- January 28 - Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg, President of Finland (d. 1952)
- February 12 - Kazimierz Tetmajer, Polish writer (d. 1940)
- February 19 - Sven Hedin, Swedish scientist and explorer (d. 1952)
- February 21 - John Haden Badley, author and educator (d. 1967)
- February 28 - Wilfred Grenfell, medical missionary to Newfoundland and Labrador (d. 1940)
- March 10 - Tan Sitong, Chinese reformist leader (d. 1898)
- March 15 - Edith Maude Eaton, English-born writer (d. 1914)
- March 19 - William Morton Wheeler, American entomologist (d. 1937)
- April 1 - Richard Adolf Zsigmondy, Austrian-born chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1929)
- April 9
- April 28
- May 2 - Clyde Fitch, American dramatist (d. 1909)
- May 25
- May 26 - Robert W. Chambers, American artist (d. 1933)
- June 2 - George Lohmann, English cricketer (d. 1901)
- June 3 - King George V of the United Kingdom (d. 1936)
- June 9 - Albéric Magnard, French composer (d. 1914)
- June 13 - William Butler Yeats, Irish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1939)
- June 26 - Bernard Berenson, American art historian (d. 1959)
- June 29 - Shigechiyo Izumi, oldest supercentenarian male (disputed) (d. 1986)
July - December
- July 23 - Max Heindel, Danish-born Christian occultist, astrologer, and mystic (d. 1919)
- July 26 - Philipp Scheidemann, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1939)
- July 29 - Alexander Glazunov, Russian composer (d. 1936)
- August 2
- August 24 - King Ferdinand of Romania (d. 1927)
- August 27
- September 11 - Rainis, Latvian poet and playwright (d. 1929)
- October 1 - Paul Dukas, French composer (d. 1935)
- October 12 - Arthur Harden, English chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1940)
- October 17 - James Rudolph Garfield, U.S. politician (d. 1950)
- October 26 - Benjamin Guggenheim, American businessman (d. 1912)
- October 27 - Tinsley Lindley, English footballer (d. 1940)
- November 2
- December 8 - Jean Sibelius, Finnish composer (d. 1957)
- December 19 - Minnie Fiske, American stage actress (d. 1932)
- December 20 - Elsie De Wolfe, American socialite and interior decorator (d. 1950)
- December 25 - Evangeline Booth, 4th General of The Salvation Army (d. 1950)
- December 30 - Rudyard Kipling, British writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1936)
- See also :Category: 1865 births.
January - June
- January 4 - Princess Caraboo, imposter (b. 1791)
- January 19 - Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, French philosopher and anarchist (b. 1809)
- January 28 - Felice Romani, poet and librettist (b. 1788)
- February 6 - Isabella Beeton, British cook and expert on household management (b. 1836)
- March 1 - Anna Pavlovna of Russia, queen consort of the Netherlands (b. 1795)
- March 20 - Yamanami Keisuke, samurai (b. 1833)
- March 30 - Oleksandr Dukhnovych, priest, writer and social activist (b. 1803
- April 1
- April 2 - A.P. Hill, American Confederate general (b. 1825)
- April 13 - Achille Valenciennes, French zoologist (b. 1794)
- April 15 - Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States (b. 1809)
- April 18 - Léon Jean Marie Dufour, French medical doctor and naturalist (b. 1780)
- April 24 - Grand Duke Nicholas Alexandrovich of Russia (b. 1843)
- April 26 - John Wilkes Booth, American actor and assassin of Abraham Lincoln (b. 1838)
July - December
- July 6 - Sophie of Sweden, Grand Duchess of Baden (b. 1801)
- July 25 - James Barry, British military surgeon (b. 1795)
- August 12 - William Jackson Hooker, English botanist (b. 1785)
- September 2 - William Rowan Hamilton, Irish mathematician (b. 1805)
- October 16 - Andrés Bello, Venezuelan poet, lawmaker, teacher, philosopher and sociologist (b. 1781)
- October 18 - Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1784)
- November 12 - Elizabeth Gaskell, British novelist and biographer (b. 1810)
- November 28 - William Machin Stairs, Canadian businessman and statesman (b. 1789)
- December 6 - Sebastián Iradier, Spanish composer (b. 1809)
- December 10 - Léopold I of Belgium (b. 1790)
- December 14 - Johan Georg Forchhammer, geologist (b. 1794)
- December 17 - Luigi Ciacchi, Italian cardinal (b. 1788)