The German Mine Sweeping Administration (GMSA)
was formed from former crews and vessels of the Nazi German Kriegsmarine
for the purpose of mine sweeping
after the Second World War
, predominantly in the North Sea
and Baltic Sea
, and existed from June 1945 to January 1948.
The GMSA was formed on 21 June 1945
under allied supervision, specifically that of the Royal Navy
, to clear naval mines
in the North Sea and Baltic. It was made up of 27,000 former members of the Kriegsmarine
on nearly 300 vessels.
The allied command was well aware of the problem caused for commercial shipping by the over 600,000 naval mines laid in the seas of Western, Northern and Eastern Europe and had asked that the German mine sweeping formations not be dismissed after the surrender in May 1945. For this reason, Vice Admiral Sir Harold Burrough, British Naval Commander-in-Chief, Germany, undersigned the instruction for the GMSA in June 1945. The British Admiralty preferred to risk German sailors rather than their own to do the dangerous work. The GMSA was originally under the command of Commodore H.T. England; below him, as the highest ranking German officer, was Konteradmiral Fritz Kraus, who had been in charge of mine sweeping operations during the war.
The German sailors initially served in their Second World War uniforms, with the German Eagle and the Swastika removed, and under the same rules and regulations as were valid in the Kriegsmarine. The sailors were paid a moderate wage and had the right to take local leave, unlike other German POW's, but service was not voluntary.
The service was sub-divided into six mine sweeping divisions (German:Räumbootdivisionen). The German headquarters of the service were located in Glückstadt.
On 25 May 1946, the GMSA was equipped with new blue work uniforms and special rank insignia, worn on the sleeve.
The headquarters of the GMSA were moved to Hamburg in December 1947 and disbanded in January 1948, despite US objections. The reason for its disbanding was primarily pressure from the Soviet Union who feared the GMSA was an attempt by the western allies to re-form the German Kriegsmarine, something the Royal Navy bitterly opposed themselves. The Reichsmarine had used mine sweeping operations after the First World War to preserve a talent pool of officers and the Royal Navy wanted to avoid a repeat of this experience.
The "German mine sweeping formation Cuxhaven", a civilian organisation, replaced the GMSA, still under British control and using equipment and personnel of the previous organisation.
One of the few large surface ships of the Kriegsmarine to survive the war, the light cruiser Leipzig, in fairly bad condition, served as an accommodation hulk for the GMSA.
The GMSA was sub-divided into six regional divisions of varying strength:
- Area cleared:
- North Sea: 5628 square sea miles
- Baltic Sea: 450 square sea miles
- Naval Mines cleared: 2721
- Vessels lost: 10
- Crew killed: 348
As of early 1947, the service consisted of the following ships and vessels:
- 84 Minehunting boats (German:Minensuch-Boote) Type 35, Type 40, Type 43
- 63 Minesweeper boats (German:Räum-Boote) partial with Voith-Schneider propulsion systems
- 62 War fishing cutters (German:Kriegsfischkutter) 6 Mine barrage breaker (Sperrbrecher)
- 5 Auxiliary Minesweeper (former fishery trawlers)
- 110 Auxiliary ships
- The 4th Mine Sweeping Group (German: 4. Minensuchgruppe) in Lorient, France, was made up from crews of French sailors and German POWs.
- Deutscher Minenräumverband Cuxhaven (German mine sweeping formation Cuxhaven), based in Cuxhaven, Germany, a civilian formation under control of the British Customs, replaced the GMSA, active from January 1948 to June 1951
- Labour Service Unit (LSU/B), based in Bremerhaven and under control of the US Navy, the formation was active until 1957, many of its members continued to serve in the German Bundesmarine after that
- The Royal Navy and German Naval Disarmament, 1942-1947, by Chris Madsen, publisher: Routledge