Miconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent, developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica, and commonly applied topically (to the skin) or mucus membranes to cure fungal infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a critical component of fungal cell membranes. It can also be used against certain species of Leishmania protozoa (which are a type of unicellular parasite), as these also contain ergosterol in their cell membranes. In addition to its antifungal and antiparasitic actions, it also has some limited antibacterial properties.
Miconazole is also used in Ektachrome film developing (along with surfactants such as Photo-Flo) in the final rinse of the Kodak E-6 process and similar Fuji CR-56 process, replacing formaldehyde. Fuji Hunt also includes Miconazole as a final rinse additive in their formulation of the process C-41RA rapid access color negative developing process.
Miconazole is mainly used externally for the treatment of Athlete's foot
and Jock Itch
. Internal application is used for oral
or vaginal thrush
). In addition the oral gel may also be used for the lip disorder angular cheilitis
It has an advantage over Nystatin
in the treatment of neonatal
oral thrush in that the latter is only licensed in the UK for those over the age of one month; but note the possibility for drug interactions.
Unlike nystatin, some miconazole is absorbed by the intestinal tract when used orally (and possibly if used vaginally) which may lead to drug interactions.
Of note may be interactions with anticoagulants, phenytoin, terbinafine, some newer atypical antipsychotics, cyclosporin and some statins used to treat hypercholesterolemia.
Oral treatment: (brands: Daktarin in UK)
- Oral gel 24mg/ml (20mg/g)
External skin treatment: (brands: Micatin, Monistat-Derm, Daktarin in UK and Belgium)
- Topical cream: 2%.
- Combination: 2% cream with 1% hydrocortisone (Daktacort in UK, Daktodor in Greece)
Vaginal treatment: (brands: Miconazex, Monistat, Femizol or Gyno-Daktariin in UK)
- Pessaries: 200 mg or 100 mg
- Vaginal cream: 2%
- Combination: 2% cream with either 100mg or 200 mg pessaries.
The solubilities of miconazole nitrate powder are 0.03% in water, 0.76% in ethanol and up to 4% in acetic acid.