The genus Cupressus is one of several genera within the family Cupressaceae that have the common name cypress; for the others, see cypress (disambiguation).
As currently treated, these cypresses are native to scattered localities in mainly warm temperate regions in the northern hemisphere, including western North America, Central America, north-west Africa, the Middle East, the Himalaya, southern China and north Vietnam. They are evergreen trees or large shrubs, growing to 5-40 m tall. The leaves are scale-like, 2-6 mm long, arranged in opposite decussate pairs, and persist for 3-5 years. On young plants up to 1-2 years old, the leaves are needle-like, 5-15 mm long. The cones are 8-40 mm long, globose or ovoid with 4-14 scales arranged in opposite decussate pairs; they are mature in 18-24 months from pollination. The seeds are small, 4-7 mm long, with two narrow wings, one along each side of the seed.
Many of the species are adapted to forest fires, holding their seeds for many years in closed cones until the parent trees are killed by a fire; the seeds are then released to colonise the bare, burnt ground. In other species, the cones open at maturity to release the seeds.
Many species are grown as decorative trees in parks and, in Asia, around temples; in some areas, the native distribution is hard to discern due to extensive cultivation. A few species are grown for their timber, which can be very durable. The fast-growing hybrid Leyland Cypress, much used in gardens, draws one of its parents from this genus (Monterey Cypress C. macrocarpa); the other parent, Nootka Cypress, is also sometimes classified in this genus, or else in the separate genus Callitropsis, but in the past more usually in Chamaecyparis. The cypress is a common tree/shrub in household and public gardens in India (called locally मोरपंखी, lit., peacock-feathered).
The number of species recognised within this genus varies sharply, from 16 to 25 or more according to the authority followed. This is because most populations are small and isolated, and it is difficult to be sure whether they should be accorded specific
rank. Current tendencies are to reduce the number of recognised species; when a narrow species concept is adopted, the varieties indented in the list below may also be accepted as distinct species. See also the New World species (below) for a likely split in the genus in the future.
Old World species
The Old World cypresses tend to have cones with more scales (8-14 scales, rarely 6 in C. funebris
), each scale with a short broad ridge, not a spike. Cupressus sempervirens
is the type species of the genus, defining the name Cupressus
New World species
The New World cypresses tend to have cones with fewer scales (4-8 scales, rarely more in C. macrocarpa), each scale with an often prominent narrow spike. Recent genetic evidence (Little et al., November 2004) shows that they are less closely related to the Old World cypresses than previously thought, being more closely related to Callitropsis and Juniperus than to the rest of Cupressus. These species have very recently (Little 2006) been transferred to Callitropsis.
- Cupressus abramsiana (Cupressus goveniana var. abramsiana; Callitropsis abramsiana; Santa Cruz Cypress)
- Cupressus arizonica (Callitropsis arizonica; Arizona Cypress)
- Cupressus arizonica var. glabra (Cupressus glabra; Callitropsis glabra; Smooth Arizona Cypress)
- Cupressus arizonica var. montana (Cupressus montana; Callitropsis montana; San Pedro Martir Cypress)
- Cupressus arizonica var. nevadensis (Cupressus nevadensis; Callitropsis nevadensis; Piute Cypress)
- Cupressus arizonica var. stephensonii (Cupressus stephensonii; Callitropsis stephensonii; Cuyamaca Cypress)
- Cupressus bakeri (Callitropsis bakeri; Modoc Cypress)
- Cupressus goveniana (Callitropsis goveniana; Gowen Cypress)
- Cupressus guadalupensis (Callitropsis guadalupensis; Guadalupe Cypress)
- Cupressus guadalupensis var. forbesii (Cupressus forbesii; Callitropsis forbesii; Tecate Cypress)
- Cupressus lusitanica (Callitropsis lusitanica; Mexican Cypress)
- Cupressus lusitanica var. benthamii (Cupressus benthamii; Callitropsis benthamii; Bentham's Cypress)
- Cupressus macnabiana (Callitropsis macnabiana; Macnab Cypress)
- Cupressus macrocarpa (Callitropsis macrocarpa; Monterey Cypress)
- Cupressus pigmaea (Cupressus goveniana var. pigmaea; Callitropsis pigmaea; Mendocino Cypress)
- Cupressus sargentii (Callitropsis sargentii; Sargent Cypress)
- Callitropsis nootkatensis (Nootka Cypress) is also sometimes treated as Cupressus nootkatensis
- Little, D. P., Schwarzbach, A. E., Adams, R. P. & Hsieh, Chang-Fu. 2004. The circumscription and phylogenetic relationships of Callitropsis and the newly described genus Xanthocyparis (Cupressaceae). American Journal of Botany 91 (11): 1872–1881. Abstract
- Little, D. P. (2006). Evolution and circumscription of the true Cypresses. Syst. Bot. 31 (3): 461-480.