(1846–48) War between the U.S. and Mexico. It grew from a border dispute after the U.S. annexed Texas in 1845; Mexico claimed that the southern border of Texas was the Nueces River, while the U.S. claimed it was the Rio Grande. A secret mission by John Slidell to negotiate the dispute and purchase New Mexico and California for up to $30 million was aborted when Mexico refused to receive him. In response to the snub, Pres. James Polk sent troops under Zachary Taylor to occupy the disputed land between the two rivers. In April 1846 Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and attacked Taylor's troops; Congress approved a declaration of war in May. Ordered to invade Mexico, Taylor captured Monterrey and defeated a large Mexican force under Antonio Santa Anna at the Battle of Buena Vista in February 1847. Polk then ordered Gen. Winfield Scott to move his army by sea to Veracruz, capture the city, and march inland to Mexico City. Scott followed the plan, meeting resistance at Cerro Gordo and Contreras, and entered Mexico City in September. Under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico ceded to the U.S. nearly all of present New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, California, Texas, and Colorado for $15,000,000 and U.S. assumption of its citizens' claims against Mexico. Casualties included about 13,000 American deaths, all but 1,700 of which were caused by disease. The war, which made a national hero of Taylor, reopened the slavery-extension issue supposedly settled by the Missouri Compromise.
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