- For the modern Doric dialect of Scotland, see Doric dialect (Scotland)
was a dialect
of ancient Greek
. Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern Peloponnese
, some islands in the southern Aegean Sea
, some cities on the coasts of Asia Minor
, Southern Italy
. Together with Northwest Greek
, it forms the "Western group" of classical Greek dialects. By Hellenistic times, the influence of the Aetolian League
had given rise to an Achaean-Doric Koine
exhibiting many peculiarities common to all Doric dialects and which delayed the spread of the Attic
to the Peloponnese until the 2nd century BC.
It is widely accepted that Doric originated in the mountains of Epirus, northwestern Greece, the original seat of the Dorians. It was expanded to all other regions during the Dorian invasion (circa 1150 BC) and the colonisations that followed. The presence of a Doric state (Doris) in central Greece, north of the Gulf of Corinth, led to the theory that Doric had originated in northwest Greece or maybe beyond in the Balkans. The extent of the dialect's distribution towards the north is unknown for lack of epigraphic evidence. It is only in the Hellenistic period that stray finds become available as far north as Macedonia (see Pella curse tablet).
Where the Doric dialect group fits in the overall classification of ancient Greek dialects depends to some extent on the classification. Several views are stated under Greek dialects
. The prevalent theme of most views listed there is that Doric is a subgroup of West Greek
. Some use the terms Northern Greek
or Northwest Greek
instead. The geographic distinction is only verbal and ostensibly is misnamed: all of Doric was spoken south of "Southern Greek" or "Southeastern Greek."
Be that as it may, "Northern Greek" is based on a presumption that Dorians came from the north and on the fact that Doric is closely related to Northwest Greek. When the distinction began is not known. All the "northerners" might have spoken one dialect at the time of the Dorian invasion; certainly, Doric could only have further differentiated into its classical dialects when the Dorians were in place in the south. Thus West Greek is the most accurate name for the classical dialects.
Tsakonian, a descendant of Laconian Doric (Spartan), is still spoken on the southern Argolid coast of the Peloponnese, in the modern prefectures of Arcadia and Laconia. Today it is a source of considerable interest to linguists, and an endangered dialect.
The dialects of the Doric Group are as follows.
Laconian was spoken by the population of Laconia in the southern Peloponnesus and also by its colonies, Tarentum and Heraclea, in southern Italy. Sparta was the seat of ancient Laconia.
Laconian is attested in inscriptions on pottery and stone from the 7th century BC. A dedication to Helen dates from the 2nd quarter of the 7th. Tarentum was founded in 706 BC. The founders must already have spoken Laconic.
Many documents from the state of Sparta survive, whose citizens called themselves Lacedaemonians after the name of the valley in which they lived. Homer calls it "hollow Lacedaemon", though he refers to a pre-Dorian period. The 7th century BC, Spartan poet, Alcman, used a dialect that some consider to be predominantly Laconian. Philoxenus of Alexandria wrote a treatise On the Laconian dialect.
Argolic was spoken in the thickly settled northeast Peloponnesus at, for example, Argos, Mycenae, Hermione, Troezen, Epidaurus, and as close to Athens as the island of Aegina. As Mycenaean Greek had been spoken in this dialect region in the Bronze Age, it is clear that the Dorians overran it but were unable to take Attica. The Dorians went on from Argos to Crete and Rhodes.
Ample inscriptional material of a legal, political and religious content exists from at least the 6th century BC.
Corinthian was spoken first in the isthmus region between the Peloponnesus and mainland Greece; that is, the Isthmus of Corinth. The cities and states of the Corinthian dialect region were Corinth, Sicyon, Cleonae, Phlius, the colonies of Corinth in western Greece: Corcyra, Leucas, Anactorium, Ambracia and others, the colonies in and around Italy: Syracuse and Ancona, and the colonies of Corcyra: Dyrrachium, Apollonia. The earliest inscriptions at Corinth date from the early 6th century BC. They use a Corinthian epichoric alphabet. (See under Attic Greek.)
Corinth contradicts the prejudice that Dorians were rustic militarists, as some consider the speakers of Laconian to be. Positioned on an international trade route, Corinth played a leading part in the recivilizing of Greece after the centuries of disorder and isolation following the collapse of Mycenaean Greece.
The Northwest Greek group is closely related to the Doric Group, while sometimes there is no distinction between the Doric and the Northwest Greek. Whether it is to be considered a part of the Doric Group or the latter a part of it or the two subgroups of West Greek, it is a verbal distinction only: the dialects and their grouping remain the same. West Thessalian and Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence. The Northwest Greek dialects differ from the Doric Group dialects in the below features:
- Dative plural of the Third declension in -οις (-ois) (instead of -σι (-si)) (Ἀκαρνάνοις ἱππέοις Akarnanois hippeois for Ἀκαρνᾶσιν ἱππεῦσιν Akarnasin hippeusin , to the Acarnanian knights.
- ἐν (en) + accusative (instead of εἰς (eis)) en Naupakton
- -στ (-st) for -σθ (-sth) γενέσται genestai for genesthai (to become) μίστωμα mistôma for misthôma (payment for hiring)
- ar for er amara /Dor. amera/Att. hêmera (day) Elean wargon for Doric wergon and Attic ergon (work)
- Dative singular in -oi instead of -ôi τοῖ Ἀσκλαπιοῖ Doric τῶι Ἀσκλαπιῶι Attic Ἀσκληπιῶι
- Middle participle in -eimenos instead of -oumenos
The dialects are as follows:
Plutarch refers that Delphians pronounce b in the place of p (βικρὸν for πικρὸν)
The dialect of Elis,Olympia is, after the Aeolic dialects, one of the most difficult for the modern reader of epigraphic texts (earliest ca. 600 BC)
- Northwest Greek Koiné
- hybrid dialect of Attic and certain Northwest Greek and Doric features
- chiefly associated with the Aetolian Confederacy and dates to the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC.
Calydon sanctuary (earliest ca. 600-575 BC) - Aetolian League 300-262 BC
A school of thought maintains that Macedonian may have been a Greek dialect, possibly of the Northwestern group in particular, although would classify Macedonian, if "Greek" at all, as a separate marginal or "deviant" item on its own.
Differences between Doric and Attic/Koine
- Preservation of long ā (α) where Attic/Koine change it to long open ē (η), as in γᾶ μάτηρ (gā mātēr) "earth mother" — Attic/Koine γῆ μήτηρ (gē mētēr).
- Contraction ae > η (ē) instead of Attic/Koine ᾱ (ā).
- Original eo, ea > ιο, ια (io, ia) in certain Doric dialects.
- Certain Doric dialects ("severe Doric") have η, ω (ē, ō) for the "spurious diphthongs" Attic/Koine ει, ου (ei, ou) (i.e. secondary long ē, ō due to contraction or compensatory lengthening. The most prominent examples are genitive singular in -ω (-ō) = -ου (-ou), accusative plural in -ως (-ōs) = -ους (-ous) and the infinitive in -ην (-ēn) = -ειν (-ein).
- Short α (a) = Attic/Koine ε in certain words: ἱαρός (hiaros), Ἄρταμις ('*Artamis), γα (ga), αἰ (ai)
- Preservation of -τι (-ti) where Attic/Koine have -σι (-si). The most prominent examples are: 1) third person singular of the μι-verbs -ti: e.g. φατί (phāti) — Attic/Koine φησί(ν) (phēsi(n)); 2) third person plural of the present and the subjunctive -nti: e.g. λέγoντι (legonti) — Attic/Koine λέγουσι(ν) (legousi(n)); 3) "twenty" ϝίκατι (wīkati) — Attic/Koine εἴκοσι(ν) (eikosi(n)); and 4) the hundreds in -katioi: e.g. τριακάτιοι (triākatioi) — Attic/Koine τριακόσιοι (triākosioi).
- Preservation of double -σσ- (-ss-) before a vowel where Attic/Koine have -σ- (-s-), e.g. μέσσος (messos) before a vowel where Attic/Koine have μέσος (mesos).
- Preservation of initial w (ϝ) which is lost in Attic/Koine. E.g. ϝοῖκος (woikos) — Attic/Koine οἶκος (oikos). The literary text in Doric and the inscriptions from the Hellenistic age have no digamma.
- ξ (x) in the aorists and futures of verbs ending in -ίζω, -άζω (-izō, -azō) where Attic/Koine have σ (s). E.g. ἀγωνίξατο (agōniksato) — Attic/Koine ἀγωνίσατο (agōnisato). Similarly κ (k) before suffixes beginning with t.
- The numeral τέτορες (tetores) "four" instead of Attic/Koine τέτταρες (τέσσαρες) (tettares (tessares)).
- The numeral πρᾶτος (prātos) "first" instead of Attic/Koine πρῶτος (prōtos).
- The demonstrative pronoun τῆνος (tēnos) "this" instead of Attic/Koine (ἐ)κεῖνος ((e)keinos)
- Nominative plural of the article and the demonstrative pronoun τοί (toi), ταί (tai), τοῦτοι (toutoi), ταῦται (tautai) instead of Attic/Koine οἱ (hoi), αἱ (hai), οὗτοι (houtoi), αὗται (hautai)
- The ending of the third person plural of the athematic ("root") preterite is -n, not -san, e.g. ἔδον (edon) — Attic/Koine ἔδοσαν (edosan)
- First person plural in -μες where Attic/Koine have -μεν.
- Future in -σε-ω (-se-ō) instead of Attic/Koine -σ-ω (-s-ō), e.g. πραξῆται (prāxētai) instead of Attic/Koine πράξεται (prāxetai).
- Modal particle κα (ka) instead of Attic/Koine ἄν (an). NB Doric αἴ κα, αἰ δέ κα, αἰ τίς κα (ai ka, ai de ka, ai tis ka) = Attic/Koine ἐάν (ἄν), ἐὰν δέ (ἂν δέ), ἐάν τις (ἄν τις) ((e)an, (e)an de, (e)an tis).
- Temporal adverbs in -κα (-ka) instead of Attic/Koine -τε (-te): ὄκα (hoka), τόκα (toka).
- Local adverbs in -ει (-ei) instead of Attic/Koine -ου (-ou): τεῖδε (teide), πεῖ (pei).
- αἰγάδες aigades (Attic αἶγες aiges) "goats"
- αἶγες aiges (Attic κύματα kymata) "waves"
- ἀλία halia (Attic ἐκκλησία ekklēsia) "assembly" (Cf. Hêliaia)
- βρύκαιναι brykainai (Attic ἱέρειαι hiereiai) "priestesses"
- βρυκετός bryketos (Attic βρυγμός brygmos, βρυκηθμός brykēthmos) "chewing, grinding, gnashing with the teeth" ὁμοίως Δωριεῖς
- δαμιοργοί damiorgoi (Attic ἄρχοντες archontes) "high officials". Cf. Attic δημιουργός dēmiourgos "public worker for the people (dēmos), craftsman, creator"; Hesychius δαμιουργοί· αἱ πόρναι "prostitutes". Zamiourgoi Elean.
- Ἐλωός Elôos Hephaestus Ἥφαιστος παρὰ Δωριεῦσιν
- κάρρων karrōn (Attic κρείττων kreittōn) "stronger" (Ionic kreissōn , Cretan kartōn )
- κορύγης korygēs (Attic κῆρυξ kēryx) "herald, messenger" (Aeolic karoux)
- λαιός laios (Homeric, Attic and Modern Greek ἀριστερός aristeros) "left".Cretan: λαία laia, Attic aspis shield, Hesych. λαῖφα laipha λαίβα laiba, because the shield was held with the left hand. Cf.Latin:laevus
- λαία laia (Attic, Modern Greek λεία leia) "prey"
- λέω (λείω) le(i)ō (Attic ἐθέλω ethelō) "will"
- οἴνωτρος oinōtros "vine pole" (: Greek οἶνος oinos "wine"). Cf. Oenotrus
- μογίοντι mogionti (Ionic πυρέσσουσι pyressousi) "they are on fire, have fever" (= Attic μογοῦσι mogousi "they suffer, take pains to")
- μυρμηδόνες myrmēdônes (Attic μύρμηκες myrmēkes) "ants". Cf. Myrmidons
- ὄπτιλλος optillos or optilos 'eye' (Attic ophthalmos) (Latin oculus) (Attic optikos of sight, Optics)
- πάομαι paomai (Attic κτάομαι ktaomai) "acquire"
- ῥαπιδοποιός rhapidopoios poet, broiderer, pattern-weaver, boot-maker (rhapis needle for Attic rhaphis)
- σκανά skana (Attic skênê) tent,stage,scene) (Homeric klisiê) (Doric skanama encampment)
- τανθαλύζειν tanthalyzein (Attic τρέμειν tremein) "to tremble"
- τύνη tunē or tounē 'you nominative' (Attic sy) dative τέειν teein (Attic σοί soi)
- χανάκτιον chanaktion (Attic μωρόν mōron)(chan goose)
- Βαλλακράδες Ballacrades title of Argive athletes on a feast-day (Cf.achras wild pear-tree)
- Δαυλὶς Daulis mimic festival at Argos (acc. Pausanias 10.4.9 daulis means thicket)(Hes. daulon fire log)
- δροόν droon strong (Attic ischyron,dynaton)
- κέστερ kester youngman (Attic neanias)
- κυλλάραβις kyllarabis discus and gymnasium at Argos
- σεμαλία semalia ragged, tattered garments Attic rhakē , cf. himatia clothes)
- ὤβεα ôbea eggs (Attic ὠά ôa )
- ἀγέλα agela "group of boys in the Cretan agōgē". Cf. Homeric Greek ἀγέλη agelē "herd" (Cretan apagelos not yet received in agelê,boy under 17)
- ἀϝτὸς aWtos (Attic autos) Hsch. aus <αὐς - >· αὐτός. Κρῆτες καὶ Λάκωνες
- ἄκαρα akaralegs (Attic skelê)
- ἁμάκις hamakis once (Attic hapax)
- ἄργετος argetos juniper,cedar (Attic arkeuthos)
- αὐκά auka power (Attic alkê)
- ἀφραττίας aphrattias strong
- βαλικιώται balikiôtai Koine synepheboi (Attic hêlikiotai 'age-peers' of the same age hêlikia)
- βριτύ britu sweet (Attic glyku)
- δαμιόω damioô , Cretan and Boeotian. for Attic zêmioô to damage,punish,harm
- δαμπόν dampon first milk curdled by heating over embers (Attic puriephthon,puriatê)
- δῶλα dôla ears (Attic ôta) (Tarentine ata)
- Ϝέλχανος Welchanos for Cretan Zeus and Welchanios , Belchanios , Gelchanos (Elchanios Cnossian month)
- ϝεργάδδομαι wergaddomai I work (Attic ergazomai)
- ϝῆμα Wêma garment (Attic heima) (Aeolic emma) (Koine (h)immation)(Cf.Attic amphi-ennumi I dress , amph-iesis clothing)
- ἰβῆν ibên wine (Dialectal Ϝοἶνος Woînos Attic oinos) (accusative ἰβῆνα ibêna)
- ἴττον itton one (Attic hen ἕν)
- καρανώ karanô goat
- ϟόσμος kosmos and kormos archontes in Crete, body of kosmoi (Attic κόσμος order,ornament,,honour,world - kormos trunk of a tree)
- κύφερον , κυφή kypheron , kuphê head (Attic kephalê)
- λάκος lakos rag,tattered garment (Attic rhakos) (Aeolic brakos long robe, lacks the sense 'ragged')
- μαλκενίς malkenis (Attic parthenos) Hsch: malakinnês.
- ὄθρυν othrun mountain (Attic oros) (Cf.Othrys)
- ῥυστόν rhyston spear
- σεῖφα seipha darkness (Attic zophos,skotia) (Aeolic dnophos)
- σπεῦσδος speusdos title of Cretan officer (Cf.speudô speus- rush)
- τάγανα tagana (Attic tauta) these things
- τίρος tiros summer (Homeric,Attic theros)
- τρέ tre you ,accusative (Attic se )
- ἀβήρ abêr storeroom οἴκημα στοὰς ἔχον, ταμεῖον Λάκωνες
- ἀβώρ abôr dawn (Attic ἠώς êôs) (Latin aurora)
- ἄδδα adda need,deficiency (Attic endeia) Aristophanes of Byzantium(fr. 33)
- ἀδδαυόν addauon dry (i.e. azauon) or addanon (Attic xêron)
- αἴκουδα aikouda (Attic aischunē) αἰσχύνη. Λάκωνες
- αἵματία haimatia blood-broth ,Spartan Melas Zomos Black soup) (haima haimatos blood)
- ἀΐτας aïtas (Attic ἐρώμενος erōmenos) "beloved boy (in a pederastic relationship)"
- ἀκκόρ akkor tube,bag (Attic askos)
- ἀκχαλίβαρ akchalibar bed (Attic skimpous)(Koine krabbatos)
- ἀμβροτίξας ambrotixas having begun ,past participle(amphi or ana..+ ?) (Attic aparxamenos , aparchomai) (Doric -ixas for Attic -isas)
- ἀμπέσσαι ampesai (Attic amphiesai) to dress
- ἀπαβοίδωρ apaboidôr out of tune (Attic ekmelôs) (Cf.Homeric singer Aoidos) / emmelôs,aboidôr in tune
- Ἀπέλλα apella (Attic ἐκκλησία ekklēsia) "assembly in Sparta" (verb apellazein)
- ἀρβυλίς arbylis (Attic ἀρύβαλλος aryballos) (Hesychius <ἀρβυλίδα>· λήκυθον. Λάκωνες)
- ἄττασι attasi wake up,get up (Attic anastêthi)
- βάβαλον babalon imperative of cry aloud, shout (Attic kraugason)
- βάγαρον bagaron (Attic χλιαρόν chliaron 'warm') (Cf. Attic φώγω phōgō 'roast') (Laconian word)
- βαφά bapha broth (Attic zômos) (Attic βαφή baphê dipping of red-hot iron in water (Koine and Modern Greek βαφή vafi dyeing)
- βείκατι beikati twenty (Attic εἴκοσι eikosi)
- βέλα bela sun and dawn Laconian (Attic helios Cretan abelios)
- βερνώμεθα bernômetha Attic klêrôsômetha we will cast or obtain by lot (inf. berreai) (Cf.Attic meiresthai receive portion , Doric bebramena for heimarmenê , allotted by Moirae)
- βέσκερος beskeros bread (Attic artos)
- βήλημα bêlêma hindrance, river dam (Laconian)
- βηρίχαλκον bêrichalkon fennel (Attic marathos) (chalkos bronze)
- βίβασις bibasis Spartan dance for boys and girls
- βίδυοι bidyoi bideoi, bidiaioi also "officers in charge of the ephebes at Sparta"
- βίὡρ biôr almost,maybe (Attic ἴσως isôs , σχεδόν schedon) wihôr
- βλαγίς blagis spot (Attic kêlis)
- βοῦα boua "group of boys in the Spartan agōgē"
- βο(υ)αγός bo(u)agos "leader of a boua at Sparta"
- βυλλίχης bullichês Laconian dancer (Attic orchêstês)
- βώνημα bônêma speech (Homeric,Ionic eirêma eireo) (Cf.Attic phônêma sound , speech)
- γαβεργόρ gabergor labourer (ga earth wergon work) (Cf.geôrgos farmer)
- γαιάδας gaiadas citizens,people (Attic dêmos)
- γονάρ gonar mother Laconian (gonades children Eur. Med. 717)
- δαβελός dabelos torch (Attic dalos)(Syracusan daelos, dawelos)(Modern Greek davlos) (Laconian δαβῇ dabêi (Attic kauthêi) it should be burnt)
- δίζα diza goat (Attic aix) and Hera aigophagos Goat-eater in Sparta
- εἴρην eirēn (Attic ἔφηβος ephēbos) "Spartan youth who has completed his 12th year"
- εἰσπνήλας eispnēlas (Attic ἐραστής erastēs) one who inspires love, a lover (Attic eispneô inhale,breathe)
- ἐξωβάδια exôbadia (Attic enôtia ; ôta ears)
- ἔφοροι ephoroi (Attic ἔφοροι ἄρχοντες archontes) "high officials at Sparta". Cf. Attic ἔφορος ephoros "overseer, guardian"
- Θοράτης Thoratês Apollon thoraios containing the semen, god of growth and increase
- θρῶναξ thrônax drone (Attic kêphên)
- κάφα kapha washing,bathing-tub (Attic loutêr) (Cf. skaphê basin,bowl)
- κελοῖα keloia (kelya, kelea also) "contest for boys and youths at Sparta"
- κίρα kirafox (Attic alôpêx) (Hsch kiraphos).
- μεσόδμα mesodma , messodoma woman and ἀνθρωπώ anthrôpô (Attic gunê)
- μυρταλίς myrtalis Butcher's broom (Attic oxumursinê) (Myrtale real name of Olympias)
- πάσορ pasor passion (Attic pathos)
- πόρ por leg,foot (Attic pous)
- πούρδαιν pourdain restaurant (Koine mageirion) (Cf. purdalon, purodansion (from pyr fire hence pyre)
- σαλαβάρ salabar cook (Common Doric/Attic mageiros)
- σίκα sika 'pig' (Attic hus) and grôna female pig.
- σιρία siria safeness (Attic asphaleia)
- ψιθωμίας psithômias ill,sick (Attic asthenês) Λάκωνες τὸν ἀσθενῆ
- ψιλάκερ psilaker first dancer
- ὠβά ôba (Attic κώμη kōmē) "village; one of five quarters of the city of Sparta"
- ἀστύξενοι astyxenoi Metics ,Tarentine
- βάννας bannas king basileus , wanax , anax
- βειλαρμοσταὶ beilarmostai cavalry officers Tarentine (Attic ilarchai) (ilē , squadron + Laconian harmost-)
- δόστορε dostore 'you make' Tarentine (Attic ποιεῖτε
- Θαύλια Thaulia "festival of Tarentum", θαυλακίζειν thaulakizein 'to demand sth with uproar' Tarentine , θαυλίζειν thaulizein "to celebrate like Dorians", Θαῦλος Thaulos "Macedonian Ares", Thessalian Ζεὺς Θαύλιος Zeus Thaulios, Athenian Ζεὺς Θαύλων Zeus Thaulon, Athenian family Θαυλωνίδαι Thaulonidai
- ῥάγανον rhaganon easy Thuriian (Attic rhaidion) (Aeolic braidion)
- σκύτας skytas 'back-side of neck' (Attic trachēlos)
- τήνης tênês till Tarentine (Attic ἕως heôs)
- τρυφώματα tryphômata whatever are fed or nursed , children , cattles (Attic thremmata)
- ὑετίς huetis jug,amphora Tarentine (Attic hydris , hydria)(huetos rain)
- ἀγρίδιον agridion 'village' Aetolian (Attic chôrion)(Hesychius text: *<ἀγρίδιον>· κωμάριον, χωρίον vA [παρὰ Αἰτωλοῖς] dim. of agros countryside,field)
- ἀερία aeria fog Aetolian (Attic omichlê , aêr air)(Hsch.<ἀερία>· ὀμίχλη, παρὰ Αἰτωλοῖς.)
- κίββα kibba wallet,bag Aetolian (Attic πήρα pêra) (Cypr. kibisis) (Cf.Attic κιβωτός kibôtos ark kibôtion box Suid. cites kibos)
- πλήτομον plêtomon Acarnanian old,ancient (Attic palaion,palaiotaton very old)
- ἀϝλανέο̄ς aWlaneôs without fraud,honestly IvO7 (Attic adolôs)(Hsch. alanes true)(Tarentinian alaneôs absolutely)
- ἀμίλλυξ amillux scythe (Attic drepanon) in accus. ἀμίλλυκα (Boeotian amillakas wine)
- ἀττάμιος attamios unpunished (Attic azêmios) from an earliest addamios (cf.Cretan,Boeotian damioô punish)
- βάβακοι babakoi cicadas Elean (Attic tettiges) (in Pontus babakoi frogs)
- βαίδειος baideios ready (Attic hetoimos) (heteos fitness)
- βενέοι beneoi Elean
- βορσός borsos cross (Attic stauros)
- βρα bra brothers,brotherhood (Cf.Attic phratra)
- βρατάνα bratana ladle (Attic torune) (Doric rhatana) (cf. Aeolic bradanizô brandish,shake off)
- δειρῆται deirêtai small birds (Macedonian δρῆες drêes or δρῆγες drêges) (Attic strouthoi) (Hsc. trikkos small bird and king by Eleans)
- ϝράτρα Wratra law,contract (Attic rhetra)
- σερός seros yesterday (Attic chthes)
- στερχανά sterchana funeral feast (Attic perideipnon)
- φίλαξ philax young oak (Macedonian ilax, Latin ilex (Laconian dilax ariocarpus,sorbus)(Modern Cretan azilakas Holm Oak, Quercus ilex)
- φόρβυτα phorbuta gums (Attic oula) (Homeric pherbô feed,eat)
- ἀγχωρίξαντας anchôrixantas having transferred,postponed Chaonian (Attic metapherô,anaballô) (anchôrizo anchi near +horizô define and Doric x instead of Attic s) (Cf. Ionic anchouros neighbouring) not to be confused with Doric anchôreô Attic ana-chôreô go back,withdraw.
- ἀκαθαρτία akathartia impurity (Attic/Doric akatharsia) (Lamelles Oraculaires 14)
- ἀποτράχω apotrachô run away (Attic/Doric apotrechô)
- ἄσπαλοι aspaloi fishes Athamanian (Attic ichthyes) (Ionic chlossoi) (Cf.LSJ aspalia angling , aspalieus fisherman , aspalieuomai I angle metaph. of a lover , aspalisai: halieusai, sagêneusai. (hals sea)
- Ἄσπετος Aspetos divine epithet of Achilles in Epirus (Homeric aspetos 'unspeakable,unspeakably great,endless' (Aristotle F 563 Rose; Plutarch, Pyrrhus 1; SH 960,4)
- γνώσκω gnôskô know (Attic gignôskô) (Ionic/Koine ginôskô) (Latin nōsco)(Attic gnôsis , Latin notio knowledge) (ref.Orion p.42.17)
- διαιτός diaitos (Hshc. jugde kritês) (Attic diaitêtês arbitrator) Lamelles Oraculaires 16
- ἐσκιχρέμεν eskichremen lend out πὲρ τοῖ ἀργύρροι (Lamelles Oraculaires 8 of Eubandros) (Attic eis + inf. kichranai from chraomai use)
- Ϝεῖδυς Weidus knowing (Doric Ϝειδώς) weidôs) (Elean ϝειζός weizos) (Attic εἰδώς) eidôs) (PIE *weid- "to know, to see" ,Sanskrit veda I know) Cabanes, L'Épire 577,50
- κάστον kaston wood Athamanian (Attic xylon from xyô scrape , hence xyston) (Dialectical kalon wood from kaiô burn kauston sth that can be burnt, kausimon fuel)
- λῃτῆρες lêïtêres Athamanian priests with garlands Hes.text ἱεροὶ στεφανοφόροι. Ἀθαμᾶνες(LSJ: lêitarchoi public priests ) (hence Leitourgia
- μανύ manu small Athamanian (Attic mikron,brachu) (Cf. manon rare) (PIE *men- small,thin) (Hsch. banon thin) (manosporos thinly sown manophullos with small leaves Thphr.HP7.6.2-6.3)
- Νάϊος Naios or Naos epithet of Dodonaean Zeus (from the spring in the oracle) (cf. Naiades and Pan Naios in Pydna SEG 50:622 (Homeric naô flow ,Attic nama spring) (PIE *sna-)
- παγάομαι pagaomai 'wash in the spring' (of Dodona) (Doric paga Attic pêgê running water,fountain)
- παμπασία pampasia (to ask peri pampasias cliché phrase in the oracle) (Attic pampêsia full property) (Doric paomai obtain)
- Πελιγᾶνες Peliganes or Peligones (Epirotan,Macedonian senators)
- πρᾶμι prami do optative(Attic πράττοιμι prattoimi) Syncope (Lamelles Oraculaires 22)
- τίνε tine (Attic/Doric tini) to whom (Lamelles Oraculaires 7)
- τριθυτικόν trithutikon triple sacrifice tri + thuo(Lamelles Oraculaires 138)