, a metabolic pathway
is a series of chemical
reactions occurring within a cell
. In each pathway, a principal chemical is modified by chemical reactions
. Enzymes catalyze
these reactions, and often require dietary minerals, vitamins and other cofactors
in order to function properly. Because of the many chemicals that may be involved, pathways can be quite elaborate. In addition, many pathways can exist within a cell. This collection of pathways is called the metabolic network
. Pathways are important to the maintenance of homeostasis
within an organism
is a step by step modification of the initial molecule to shape it into another product. The result can be used in one of three ways.
- Stored by the cell.
- Be used immediately, as a metabolic product.
- Initiate another metabolic pathway, called a flux generating step.
A molecule called a substrate enters a metabolic pathway depending on the needs of the cell and the availability of the substrate. An increase in concentration of anabolical and catabolical end products would slow the metabolic rate for that particular pathway.
Metabolic pathways are composed of a series of biochemical reactions that are connected by their intermediates: the reactants (or substrates) of one reaction are the products of the previous one, and so on. Metabolic pathways are usually considered in one direction (although all reactions are chemically reversible, conditions in the cell are such that it is thermodynamically more favorable for flux to be in one of the directions).
- *Glycolysis was the first metabolic pathway discovered:
- #As glucose enters a cell it is immediately phosphorylated by ATP to glucose 6-phosphate in the irreversible first step. This is to prevent the glucose leaving the cell.
- #In times of excess lipid or protein energy sources glycolysis may run in reverse (gluconeogenesis) in order to produce glucose 6-phosphate for storage as glycogen or starch.
Major metabolic pathways
Several distinct but linked metabolic pathways are used by cells to transfer the energy released by breakdown of fuel molecules to ATP. These occur within all living organisms in some forms:
- Anaerobic respiration
- Krebs cycle / Citric acid cycle
- Oxidative phosphorylation
Other pathways occurring in (most or) all living organisms include:
Creation of energetic compounds from non-living matter: