is a relatively recent term (or neologism
) that arises occasionally in academic literature or public discourse, and when it does, seems to be an attempt to describe a level of commonality that is wider and more general (i.e., might differ on specifics) than ethnicity
, but does not necessarily correspond to (and may actually transcend) nation
- "Against this dominant view of the nature of the Indian state, Singh argues that India should be seen as an 'ethnic democracy' in which Hinduism works as a meta-ethnicity and in which hegemonic control is exercised over ethnic minorities, particularly those living in the peripheral regions." (Jodhka 2001)
- "We also know that demographically by the year 2050 less than one in two Americans will be a white Euro-American. There has even been talk of a kind of meta-ethnicity or post-ethnicity. That is to say that intermarriage, mix, birth-rate, etc. will lead to not one, nor two or even three ethnicities feeding into people’s make-up, but many more." (Lee in interview with Williams n.d.)
- "L. Byzov, however, believes that 'there has taken place within the Russian national consciousness one of the most radical changes ever: from a meta-ethnic sense of identity to a strictly ethnic identity' (Byzov 1996, 45)." (Agadjanian 2001, note 19)
- "Geoffrey Fox, on the other hand, argues that 'Hispanic', with its emphasis on Spanish-language heritage as the foundation of meta-ethnicity, has no implied racial or class agendas and is simply preferred by most immigrants from Latin America." ... "Furthermore, these split-level processes of identity formation--the forging of ethnicity and meta-ethnicity--take place in regional contexts of unequal ethnic control over media and symbol systems." (Davis 1999)
- Peter Turchin introduces the concept "metaethnic frontier theory" in his 2003 book, Historical Dynamics: Why States Rise and Fall
- Agadjanian, Alexander. 2001. "Religious pluralism and national identity in Russia." MOST Journal on Multicultural Societies, Vol. 2, No. 2
- Brook, Solomon, and Nikolai Cheboksarov. 1984. "Metaethnic Identities in Asia and Africa." In Ethnocultural Development of African Countries. Moscow: USSR Academy of Sciences. Pp. 49-73.
- Davis, Mike. 1999. "Magical Urbanism: Latinos Reinvent the US Big City." New Left Review I/234, March-April 1999
- Jodhka, Surinder S. 2001. "New Perspectives on Sikh Studies: A review of Sikh Religion, Culture and Ethnicity edited by Christopher Shackle, Gurharpal Singh, and Arvind-Pal Mandair (Curzon Press; December 15, 2000)" The Tribune Sep. 30, 2001
- Turchin, Peter. 2003. Historical Dynamics: Why States Rise and Fall. Princeton University Press.
- Williams, Nicholas. n.d. "Talking Multiculture: An Interview with A. Robert Lee."