Definitions

mestom

Slovak declension

See also: Slovak language. Many Slovak words are given without translation on this page, for a translation see this dictionary

Introduction

The Slovak language, like most Slavic languages or like Latin, is an inflected language, meaning that the endings (and sometimes also the stems) of most words (nouns, adjectives, pronouns and numerals) change depending on the given combination of the grammatical gender, the grammatical number and the grammatical case of the particular word in the particular sentence:

a) Gender: There are four grammatical genders in Slovak language: animate masculine, inanimate masculine, feminine and neuter. In popular description, the first two genders are often covered under common masculine gender. Almost all Slovak nouns and adjectives, as well as some pronouns and numerals can be categorized into one of these genders. Exceptions are pluralia tantum (Vianoce - Christmas) and words that are drifting into other gender and are currently in the neuter (knieža - Fürst), and masculine animals that are animate in singular and mostly inanimate in plural.

b) Number: Like in English, there is the singular and the plural. Morphological traces of ancient dual number remained, but are not a separate grammar category anymore. A particular case is associated with three distinct groups of numerals associated with nouns:

(indication of ancient numbering up to four, anything above was "a lot of"?)

c) Morphological cases:

  • the nominative case (N) = the subject; the basic form of the word; answers the question Who / What; e. g. father (sg), fathers (pl)
  • the genitive case (G) =
    • (1) in English "of x" or "x's" ; answers the questions Of whom / Of what; e. g. father's (sg. ), fathers' (pl);
    • (2) is used after the prepositions bez (without), blízko (near), do (to, into), doprostred (in(to) the middle of), mimo (out(side) of), miesto (instead of), okolo (around), od (from), podľa (according to), pomimo (next to, around), pomocou (by means of), pozdĺž (along), u (at), uprostred (in the middle of), vedľa (next to, adjacent to), vnútri (in, inside of), vyše (above), z (out of, from), *za (behind)
  • the dative case (D) =
    • (1) in English "to x"; answers the question To whom / To what; e. g. to the father (sg), to the fathers (pl);
    • (2) is used after the prepositions k (to, towards), kvôli (because of), napriek (in spite of), naproti (facing, opposing), oproti ((facing, opposing)), voči (facing, against)
  • the accusative case (A) =
    • (1) the direct object; answers the question Whom / What; e. g. [I see the] father (sg), fathers (pl);
    • (2) is used after the prepositions: cez(through), *medzi (between, among), *na (on, at), *nad (above), *po (after, for), *o (about, on), *pod (under), pre (for, because of), *pred (before, in front of), *v (in, on), vzhľadom na (regarding, concerning), *za (behind, for)
  • the locative case (L) = used after the prepositions *na (on), *po (after), *o (about, on), pri (at, next to), *v (in, on)
  • the instrumental case (I) =
    • (1) in English "by (means of) x"; answers the question By (means of) whom / By (means of) what; e. g. [written] by the father;
    • (2) is used after the prepositions: *medzi (between, among), *nad (above), *pod, (under), *pred (before, in front of), s (with), *za (behind, at the back of)
  • The (syntactic) vocative case (V) is not morphologically marked anymore in modern Slovak (unlike in modern Czech). Today the (syntactic) vocative is realised by the (morphological) nominative case, just like in English, German any many other languages. However, the ancient vocative declensions have survived (mostly in conserved, archaic words or language, e.g. in fairy tales, folklore, or in an ironic sense) in some words, some examples: syn (son) - V: synku, brat (brother) - V: bratu, bratku), chlapec (boy, knave) - V:chlapče), švagor (brother-in-law) - V: švagre or N, kmotor (godparent) - V:kmotre or N), chlap (man, male) - V: chlape, priateľ (friend) V: priateľu or N, pán (mister, lord) - V: pane or N), majster (master artist) - V: majstre or N), boh (god) - V: bože, mama (mum, mother) - V: mamo, mami) and was retrofitted (with the help of Czech influence) to some more words, like šéf (chief, boss) - V: šéfe. There is a dispute among some Slovak linguists whether to include vocative into grammar categories but with declension (mostly) equal to the nominative, or to unify it with nominative case category. But since the morphological vocative is used only for the above restricted number of words and in addition only in some contexts, it is surely an exaggeration to say that the (morphological) vocative is still in the Slovak language. Note however that there is no dispute that the syntactic vocative is present in Slovak (and in every other language). Slovak schools have been teaching for at least 30 years that there is no grammar category of vocative anymore in use, and since 1990 they are not mentioning vocative at all. Also, the Slovak Encyclopedia of Linguistics (1993) explicitly says: the vocative is nowadays replaced by the nominative.

However, there is a different form of morphological vocative emerging in spoken language, used with some familiar forms of personal names (Paľo - Pali, Jano, Jana - Jani, Zuza - Zuzi) and familiar forms of kinship words, such as mama - mami (mum, mother), oco - oci (dad, father), tata, tato - tati (dad, daddy), baba, babka - babi (gran, granny, grandmother). This usage is very similar to the "new Russian vocative" (Маш', Петь', мам'), and it is not accepted into standardised codified language. This probably developed out of proper names that were formed using the Hungarian diminutive suffix -i and that are used in spoken Slovak, and therefore is often homonymous with nominative (semi-)diminutive forms of the names.

Legend

  • "ends in" in the following refers to the ending in the nominative singular (N sg), unless stated differently
  • Soft consonants are: all consonants with the diacritic mark ˇ (e.g. š, ľ) + c, dz, j. Hard and neutral consonants are all the remaining consonants
  • For masculine nouns, adjectives, pronouns and numerals it is necessary to distinguish between animate and inanimate ones. An animate noun is a person (e. g. father, Peter) and an inanimate noun is any other noun (e. g. table, fear, democracy). Animals are usually viewed as persons only in sg. For the animate nouns, the G is identical with the A (both in sg. and in pl.), and for the inanimate nouns, the N is identical with the A (both in sg. and in pl. ). Animate/Inanimate adjectives, pronouns and numerals are those referring to an animate/inanimate noun respectively (e. g. in "my father" the "my" is animate, because father is animate).
  • sg = singular, pl = plural
  • N, G, D, A, L, I are abbreviations of grammatical cases (see above)

Nouns

For each gender, there are four basic declension paradigms (i. e. declension models).

Note that many nouns (especially those following the paradigm chlap) have different endings then those of the paradigms in one or several grammatical cases. They are neither defined, nor listed in the following. The complete number of different paradigms for nouns is somewhere about 200.

A very small number of foreign nouns is not declined (i. e. the stem and ending never change).

The Masculine Gender

  animate and ends in anything except -a animate and ends in -a inanimate and ends in a hard or neutral consonant inanimate and ends in a soft consonant
  sg. pl. sg. pl. sg. pl. sg. pl.
N chlap chlapi hrdina hrdinovia dub duby stroj stroje
G chlap-a chlap-ov hrdin-u hrdin-ov dub-a dub-ov stroj-a stroj-ov
D chlapovi chlapom hrdinovi hrdinom dubu dubom stroju strojom
A chlapa chlapov hrdinu hrdinov dub duby stroj stroje
L chlapovi chlapoch hrdinovi hrdinoch dube duboch stroji strojoch
I chlapom chlapmi hrdinom hrdinami dubom dubmi strojom strojmi

There is also a 5th paradigm for foreign nouns ending in .-i, -y, -e, -í, -é, -ě, -ä (e. g. pony, kuli, Tököli, Goethe, Krejčí, abbé, Poupě) and foreign personal names ending in -ü, -ö (e. g. Jenö), which goes as follows:

  • Sg: N: pony, G: ponyho, D: ponymu, A: ponyho, L and I: ponym
  • Pl: like hrdina.

Masculine animal nouns are declined like chlap in the singular, but in plural usually like dub (if they end in a hard or neutral consonant) or like stroj (otherwise)

Notes on chlap:

  • For the nouns ending in a vowel (e. g. -o, -u) the vowel is not part of the stem, but the ending in N sg: e. g. dedo has G/D sg. . . deda/dedovi etc. (not dedoa/dedoovi etc. ).
  • many nouns lose an e/o/i from the stem in all cases except N sg (e. g. vrabec - vrabca);
  • in some short nouns, the -e- changes its position in all cases except N sg (e. g. žnec - ženca)
  • some nouns ending in -k / -ch change the k / ch in c / s in N pl, e. g. žiak - žiaci
  • most Latin and Greek nouns in -us, -as, -es, -os lose the us / as / es / os in all cases except N sg (e. g. génius - génia; but e. g. fiškus - fiškusa)

Notes on hrdina: -

Notes on dub:

  • many nouns lose an e/ o / i / í /ie/ á from the stem in all cases except N sg and A sg (e. g. výmysel - výmysla, chrbát - chrbta, ohníček - ohníčka, dnešok - dneška, ocot - octa )
  • some Greek and Latin nouns in -us, -es, -os lose the us / es / os in all cases except N sg and A sg (e.g. komunizmus - komunizmu; but e.g. autobus - autobusu, cirkus - cirkusu)
  • some Slovak words lose the acute or the i/u from a diphthong in all cases except N sg and Asg :, e. g. mráz - mraza, chlieb - chleba, vietor - vetra (here at the same time loss of o), stôl - stola, bôr - bora
  • in G pl, some nouns change the a/e/i/o/u (without an acute or a preceding i) in the stem to á/é/í/ó/ú (raz - ráz, Vojany - Voján, Krompachy - Krompách) or in some cases to ia/ie/iu/ô (e. g. čas -čias, Margecany - Margecian, Žabokreky - Žabokriek), unless the preceding syllable in the stem already contains a vowel with an acute or a diphthong (e. g. Hájniky - Hájnik)

Notes on stroj:

  • many nouns lose the e/ o / i / í /ie/ á in all cases except N sg and A sg (e. g. marec - marca, delenec- delenca, veniec- venca, deň- dňa, stupeň - stupňa, lakeť - lakťa )
  • some nouns lose the acute or the i/u from a diphthong in all cases except N sg and Asg :, e. g. dážď - dažďa, nôž - noža
  • in G pl, geographical names in pl. (plurale tantum) change the a/e/i/o/u (without an acute or a preceding i) in the stem to á/é/í/ó/ú (e. g. Tlmače - Tlmáč) or in some cases to ia/ie/iu/ô (e. g. Ladce - Ladiec) in the G pl, unless the preceding syllable in the stem already contains an acute or a diphthong

The Feminine Gender

  ends in -hard or neutral consonant + a ends in -soft consonant + a (or in -ia / -ya) ends in a consonant other than for kosť (next column). ends in -c /s / p / v / sť
  sg. pl. sg. pl. sg. pl. sg. pl.
N žena ženy ulica ulice dlaň dlane kosť kosti
G ženy žien ulice ulíc dlane dlaní kosti kostí
D žene ženám ulici uliciam dlani dlaniam kosti kostiam
A ženu ženy ulicu ulice dlaň dlane kosť kosti
L žene ženách ulici uliciach dlani dlaniach kosti kostiach
I ženou ženami ulicou ulicami dlaňou dlaňami kosťou kosťami

There is also a 5th paradigm for feminine nouns ending in -ná or -ovná (e. g. princezná), where the singular and N pl and A pl are like pekná (see under adjectives) and the remaining plural is like žena. In the G pl, there are changes in the stem: if the noun ends in -vowel + ná, then this vowel receives an acute (e. g. švagriná - švagrín), but otherwise an -ie- is inserted (e. g. princezná - princezien).

There is also a 6th paradigm for the feminine nouns ending in -ea (idea, Kórea), which goes like žena, except that D sg and Lsg are idei, and G pl is ideí without change in the stem.

Notes on žena:

  • The following nouns are declined like ulica instead of žena: večera, rozopra, konopa, Hybe and (the plurale tantum) dvere
  • In the G pl of some nouns, an ie/ e / o / á / ô is inserted in the last syllable of the stem (e. g. hra-hier, čipka - čipiek /čipôk, karta - kariet /karát, kvapka - kvapiek / kvapák /kvapôk, vojna - vojen, látka - látok)
  • In the G pl of some nouns, in the last syllable of the stem the a / i / y / u / ä / e / o /syllabic r / syllabic l (without an acute or a preceding i) is changed into á (or ia) / í / ý / ú /ia / ie / ô/ ŕ/ ĺ respectively (sila - síl, skala - skál, chyba - chýb, ruka - rúk, fakulta - fakúlt, päta - piat, slza - sĺz, črta-čŕt, brzda - bŕzd, slza-sĺz)

Notes on ulica:

  • In the G pl of some nouns, an ie is inserted (e. g. jedľa - jedieľ, sukňa - sukieň)
  • In the G pl of some nouns, in the last syllable of the stem the a / i / y / u / e / o /syllabic r (without an acute or a preceding i) is changed into á (or ia)/ í / ý / ú /ie / ô/ ŕ respectively (e. g. ulica -ulíc, sudkyňa -sudkýň, Krkonoše, Krkonôš, košeľa - košieľ, guľa - gúľ, hoľa - hôľ, fľaša - fliaš

Notes on dlaň:

  • The following nouns are declined like dlaň, not like kosť: obec, päsť, čeľusť, päsť.
  • The following feminine nouns are not declined like dlaň, but like kosť: jar, zver, chuť, ortuť, pamäť, smrť, pleť, sneť, rukoväť, smeť, púť, spleť, svojeť, reč, seč, meď, soľ, hluš, myš, voš, lož, bel, Sereď, Sibír, Budapešť, Bukurešť, Lešť and a few other nouns. The words myseľ, chuť, raž, tvár, hneď can be declined like dlaň or like kosť in the singular, but only like dlaň in the plural. The word hrsť is declined like dlaň in the singular, but like kosť in the plural.
  • most nouns in -eň lose the e in all cases except N sg and A sg (e. g. úroveň - úrovne)

Notes on kosť:

  • see the first two notes under dlaň
  • some nouns lose the e / o in all cases except N sg and A sg (e. g. ves - vsi, lož - lži, cirkev-cirkvi)

The Neuter Gender

 

ends in - o

ends in - e (except -ie)

ends in - ie

ends in - a or -ä

 

sg.

pl.

sg.

pl.

sg.

pl.

sg.

pl.

Nmestomestásrdcesrdciavysvedčenievysvedčeniadievča dievčatá / dievčence
Gmestamiestsrdcasŕdcvysvedčeniavysvedčenídievčaťadievčiat/ dievčeniec
Dmestumestámsrdcusrdciamvysvedčeniuvysvedčeniamdievčaťudievčatám/ dievčencom
Amestomestásrdcesrdciavysvedčenievysvedčeniadievčadievčatá/ dievčence
Lmestemestáchsrdcisrdciachvysvedčenívysvedčeniachdievčatidievčatách / dievčencoch
Imestommestamisrdcomsrdcamivysvedčenímvysvedčeniamidievčaťomdievčatami / dievčencami

For (any) neuter nouns ending in -vowel+um/on (e. g. štúdium, ganglion) there is actually a 5th paradigm (štúdium), which is declined like mesto except that the -um- / -on- is omitted in all cases except N sg and A sg., L sg ends in -u (štúdiu),and G pl in -í (štúdií).

Notes on mesto:

  • Latin and Greek neuter nouns ending in -consonant +um/on (e. g. fórum, epiteton) are declined like mesto, except that the -um- / -on- is omitted in all cases except N sg and A sg (e. g. N sg and A sg: publikum, G sg: publika, D sg: publiku etc. )
  • in the G pl of some nouns, an ie/ e / o / á /(rarely é) is inserted in the last syllable of the stem (e. g. clo-ciel, mydlo-mydiel, zvieratko-zvieratiek, jedlo - jedál, vrecko-vrecák/vreciek, vlákno - vláken / vlákien, číslo - čísel / čísiel, lajno - lajen, lýtko - lýtok, teliesko - teliesok
  • in the G pl of some nouns, in the last syllable of the stem the a / i / y / u / ä / e / o /syllabic r / syllabic l (without an acute or a preceding i) is changed into á / í / ý / ú /ia / ie / ô/ ŕ/ ĺ respectively (kladivo - kladív, zrno - zŕn)

Notes on srdce:

  • In the G pl of some nouns, an ie/e is inserted in the last syllable of the stem. (e. g. citoslovce-citosloviec, okience - okienec, vajce - vajec)
  • In the G pl of some nouns, in the last syllable of the stem the a / i / y / u / ä / e / o /syllabic r / syllabic l (without an acute or a preceding i) is changed into á / í / ý / ú /ia / ie / ô/ ŕ/ ĺ respectively (plece-pliec, srdce-sŕdc, slnce-sĺnc).

Notes on vysvedčenie: -

Notes on dievča:

  • The -a- at the beginning of all endings is replaced by ä in nouns, where a p/b/m/f/v precedes the a (e. g. žriebä - žriebäťa - žriebäťu. . . ).
  • Most nouns can take both the -at- endings and the -enc- endings in the plural (e. g. dievča, húsa, bábä), some nouns however take only the -at- endings (e. g. knieža, zviera, mláďa) and some nouns only the -enc- endings (e. g. kura). The following nouns do not take the -en- in the alternative plural endings : prasa (- prasatá / prasce - prasiat / prasiec), teľa, šteňa.

Adjectives

Paradigms

Pekný

This paradigm is used for adjectives ending in -a hard or neutral consonant + ý [in the masculine gender]

 

masculine

neuter

feminine

plural

Npeknýpeknépeknápekné (masc. animate: pekní)
Gpeknéhopeknéhopeknejpekných
Dpeknémupeknémupeknejpekným
Apekný (animate: pekného)peknépeknúpekné (masc. animate: pekných)
Lpeknompeknompeknejpekných
Ipeknýmpeknýmpeknoupeknými

Cudzí

This paradigm is used for adjectives ending in -a soft consonant + í [in the masculine gender] (including the comparative and superlative, see below )

Forms: They are like with pekný, but within the endings (i. e. in what follows after pekn-) always replace ý by í, é by ie, á by ia, and ú by iu., e.g.: pekný - cudzí, pekné(ho) - cudzie(ho), pekný(m) - cudzí(m), pekná - cudzia, peknú - cudziu.

Otcov

This paradigm is used for adjectives ending in -ov / -in [in the masculine gender] (e. g. otcov ("father's" ), mamin ("mather's")). All of them are, by the way, possessive adjectives (adjectives in -ov for masculine persons, adjectives in -in for feminine persons)

 

masculine

neuter

feminine

plural

Notcovotcovootcovaotcove (masc. animate: otcovi)
Gotcovhootcovhootcovejotcových
Dotcovmuotcovmuotcovejotcovým
Aotcov (animate: otcovho)otcovootcovuotcove (masc. animate: otcových)
Lotcovomotcovomotcovejotcových
Iotcovýmotcovýmotcovouotcovými

The Comparative and Superlative

The comparative is formed by replacing the adjective ending -ý/y/i/í by -ejší or -ší. There are exact rules for the choice between these two endings and there are several irregular comparatives. Examples:
Regular: hrozný - hroznejší, bohatý - bohatší . . .
Irregular: veľký - väčší, malý - menší, dobrý - lepší, zlý - horší, pekný - krajší, čierny - černejší, blízky-bližší, ďaleký - ďalší, hlboký - hlbší . . .
The comparative forms are declined like cudzí

The superlative (i. e. biggest, most difficult etc. )is formed as follows: naj+comparative . Examples: pekný - krajší - najkrajší, hrozný- hroznejší - najhroznejší . . .

The comparative and superlative of adverbs (which by the way end in -o, -e or -y in the basic form)is formed by simply replacing the -(ej)ší from the adjective by -(ej)šie (e. g. pekne - krajšie - najkrajšie, hrozne - hroznejšie - najhroznejšie, teplo - teplejšie - najteplejšie, pomaly - pomalšie - najpomalšie)

Pronouns

Personal pronouns

 

I

you (sg)

he

she

it

we

you (pl. or polite form)

they (masculine animate, or mixed genders)

they (otherwise)

Njatyononaonomyvyoniony
Gma (mňa)ťa (teba) ho (jeho, neho,-ňho, -ň)ju ho (jeho, neho, -ňho, -ň) násvásich (nich)ich (ne)
Dmne (mi)tebe (ti)mu (jemu, nemu,-ňmu)jej (nej)mu (jemu, nemu,-ňmu)námvámim (nim)im (nim)
Ama (mňa)ťa (teba) ho (jeho, neho, -ňho, -ň, -eň)ju ho (-ň, -eň) násvásich (nich)ich (ne)
Lmnetebeňomnejňomnásvásnichnich
Imnoutebounímňounímnamivaminiminimi

There is also the reflexive pronoun sa, which is declined as follows: N: -, G: seba, D: sebe /si, A: seba/sa, L: sebe, I: sebou

Notes:

  • the long forms mňa, teba, seba, mne, tebe, sebe in G, D and A are used after prepositions (e. g. pre mňa) or when emphasized, especially always at the beginning of the sentence (e. g. Vidíš len seba., Teba vidím. )
  • the forms jeho, jemu in G, D and A are used when emphasized, especially always at the beginning of the sentence (e. g. Vidím jeho. Jeho vidím = It is him that I see)
  • the forms in n- (i. e. neho, nemu, nej, ňu, nich, nim, ne) are used after prepositions (e. g. pre neho (masc. )); the forms -ňho (or -ň), -ňmu, -ň can be used alternatively after the prepositions do, pre, na, za, o, po, do, u (e. g. pre neho (masc. ) = preňho = preň); the special form -eň can be used alternatively (for neutre nouns obligatorily) after the prepositions nad, ponad, cez, pod, popod, pred, popred (e. g. nad neho (masc.) = nadeň ).

Demonstrative Pronouns

 

masculine

neuter

feminine

plural

Ntentotie (masc. animate: tí)
Gtohotohotejtých
Dtomutomutejtým
Aten (masc. animate: toho)totie (masc. animate: tých)
Ltomtomtejtých
Itýmtýmtoutými

like ten (that, the) are declined: tamten (that one), henten (that one), tento (this one), tenže (the same). . .

like adjectives are declined: e. g. istý (certain, same), každý (each), iný (other), taký / onaký (such), všetok (all), sám (-self), onen (that one),and žiaden=žiadny (no one) . . .

Interrogative (and Relative) and Indefinite pronouns

who: N: kto - G:koho -D:komu - A:koho - L:kom - I:kým [always masculine animate]
what: N: čo - G:čoho - D:čomu - A: čo -L: čom -I:čím [always neuter]

like kto/čo are declined: nikto (nobody), niekto/dakto (someone), niečo/dačo (something), hocikto (who ever), nič (nothing), ktosi (someone), čosi (something) . . .

like adjectives are declined:čí (whose), niečí /dačí / hocičí (someone's), ničí (noone's), ktorý (which), aký (what, which), nejaký / dajaký / (some), nijaký / niktorý (no), čísi (someone's), číkoľvek (whose ever). akýsi (some), ktorýsi (some), ktorýkoľvek (which ever). . .

Possessive pronouns

 

masculine

neuter

feminine

plural

Nmôjmojemojamoje (masc. animate: moji)
Gmôjhomôjhomojejmojich
Dmôjmumôjmumojejmojim
Amôj (animate: môjho)mojemojumoje (masc. animate: mojich)
Lmojommojommojejmojich
Imojímmojímmojoumojimi

like môj (my) are declined:

  • tvoj (your (sg. )) and svoj (one's own), except that the o never changes in ô (e. g. tvoj-tvojho . . . )
  • náš (our) and váš (your (pl. )), except that the -ô- in môj corresponds to an -á-, and an -o- in môj corresponds to an -a- here (e. g. náš-G:nášho- L:našom)

not declined are:

  • jeho (his), jej (her), ich (their)

Numerals

Cardinal Numerals (one, two, three. . . )

Paradigms

jeden (one): is declined like the adjective pekný

  • Changes for compound numerals in -jeden: not declined ; see Compound Numerals

dva (two): N: dvaja (masc. animate); dva (masc. inanimate); dve (otherwise) - G: dvoch - D: dvom - A: dvoch (masc. animate); dva (masc. inanimate); dve (otherwise) - L: dvoch - I: dvoma

  • Changes for compound numerals in -dva:

N: dvaja/dva (masc. animate); dva (otherwise)
A: dvoch /dva (masc. animate); dva (otherwise)

  • Also declined like dva: obidva / oba (both), and (with the above changes) the second part of the compound numerals 32, 42, . . . 92, if they are declined (see Compound Numerals)

tri (three): N: traja (masc. animate); tri (otherwise) - G: troch - D: trom - A: troch (masc. animate); tri (otherwise) - L: troch - I: troma / tromi

  • Changes for compound numerals in -tri, -štyri:

N: traja/tri (masc. animate); tri (otherwise)
A: troch/tri (masc. animate); tri (otherwise)

  • Also declined like tri: štyri (4), and (with the above changes) the second part of the compound numerals 23, 33, 43, . . . 93; 24, 34, 44, . . . 94, if they are declined (see Compound Numerals)

päť (five): N: piati / päť (masc. animate); päť (otherwise) - G: piatich - D: piatim - A: piatich / päť (masc. animate); päť (otherwise) - L: piatich - I: piatimi

  • Also declined like päť: the numerals päť (6) to 19 (19), and 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and the second part of the compound numerals 25 - 29, 35-39 . . . 95-99, if they are declined (see Compound Numerals)

100, 200, 300, . . . 900; 1000, 2000, 3000, . . . 9000: not declined, but 1000 can be declined like päť

Compound Numerals

  • if they end in -jeden (e. g. 21, 101):
    • not declined
  • otherwise:
    • 2 alternatives: not declined or declined; if they are declined, then each number making up the numeral is declined according to its own paradigm (e. g. 23 chlapov: dvadsiatich troch chlapov)

Ordinal Numerals (first, second . . . . )

They are declined like adjectives (paradigms pekný and cudzí)

Note: Ordinal numerals are formed by adding adjective endings to the (slightly modified) cardinal numbers, e. g.

5: päť - 5th: piaty,
20: dvadsať - 20th: dvadsiaty

External links

  • - provides an exhaustive treatment of Slovak declension and is the source of this article
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