Meriwether Lewis

Meriwether Lewis

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Lewis, Meriwether, 1774-1809, American explorer, one of the leaders of the Lewis and Clark expedition, b. near Charlottesville, Va. He was a captain in the army and served in a number of campaigns against Native Americans before becoming (1801) secretary to his friend President Jefferson. Selected to head the expedition for a land route to the Pacific Ocean, he chose William Clark as his associate. Upon that successful venture Lewis's fame rests. In 1807 he was made governor of Louisiana Territory, with headquarters at St. Louis. In 1809, while traveling to Washington to prepare the journals of the expedition for publication, he died suddenly—either by murder or suicide—in a lonely inn on the Natchez Trace. The cause of his death is still the subject of controversy.

See biography by R. H. Dillon (1968); see also bibliography under Lewis and Clark expedition.

(born Aug. 18, 1774, near Charlottesville, Va.—died Oct. 11, 1809, near Nashville, Tenn., U.S.) U.S. explorer. After serving in the militia during the Whiskey Rebellion (1794) in western Pennsylvania, he transferred into the regular army. In 1801 he became private secretary to Pres. Thomas Jefferson, who selected him to lead the first overland expedition to the Pacific Northwest, including the area of the Louisiana Purchase. At Lewis's request, William Clark was appointed to share the command. The success of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–06) was greatly due to Lewis's preparation and skill. At its conclusion, he and Clark each received 1,600 acres of land as a reward. Lewis was named governor of Louisiana Territory in 1808. He died under mysterious circumstances in an inn on the Natchez Trace while en route to Washington; whether his death resulted from murder or suicide is still a subject of controversy.

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Meriwether Lewis (August 18, 1774October 11, 1809) was an American explorer, soldier, and public administrator, best known for his role as the leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition also known as the Corps of Discovery, with William Clark, whose mission was to explore the territory of the Louisiana Purchase.

Biography

Meriwether Lewis was born in Albemarle County, Virginia, to Colonel William Lewis (1735 – 1777) who was of Welsh ancestry, and Lucy Meriwether (4 February 1752 – 8 September 1837). He moved with his family to Georgia when he was ten. It was there that he met Eric Parker, who was the first to introduce him to the idea of traveling. At thirteen, he was sent back to Virginia for education by private tutors. One of these was Parson Matthew Maury, an uncle of Matthew Fontaine Maury. Parson Maury was a son of Charles Goodyear Maury who was Thomas Jefferson's teacher for two years. In 1793, Lewis graduated from Liberty Hall (now Washington and Lee University), joined the Virginia militia, and in 1794 he was sent as part of a detachment involved in putting down the Whiskey Rebellion.

In 1795, he joined the regular U.S. Army, as a Lieutenant, where he served until 1801, at one point in the detachment of William Clark, who would later become his companion in the Corps of Discovery.

In 1801, he was appointed as an aide by President Thomas Jefferson, whom he knew personally through Virginia society in Albemarle County. Lewis resided in the White House, and frequently conversed with various prominent figures in politics, the arts and other circles. Originally, he was to provide information on the politics of the United States Army, which had seen an influx of Federalist officers as a result of John Adams's "midnight appointments." When Jefferson began to formulate and to plan for an expedition across the continent, he chose Lewis to lead the expedition.

Expedition

Jefferson selected Captain Meriwether Lewis to lead the proposed expedition, afterwards known as the Corps of Discovery. Lewis became intimately involved in planning the expedition and was sent by Jefferson to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, for instruction in cartography and other skills for making scientific observations. In June 1803, Jefferson provided Lewis with basic objectives for the mission, focusing on the exploration of the Missouri river and any related streams which might provide access to the Pacific Ocean. Lewis concluded the expedition would benefit from a co-commander and, with Jefferson's consent, offered the assignment to his friend and former commanding officer, William Clark. Clark and Lewis were both relatively young and adventurous and had shared experience as woodsmen-frontiersmen and Army officers. However the two men were quite different in education and temperament. Lewis was introverted and moody while Clark was extroverted, even-tempered and gregarious. Lewis, who had a better education, possessed a philosophical and speculative outlook and was at home with abstract ideas. Clark was more pragmatic and practical. Because of bureaucratic delays in the U.S. Army, Clark officially only held the rank of Second Lieutenant at the time, but Lewis concealed this from expedition members and shared the leadership of the expedition, always referring to Clark as "Captain". [4]

Lewis departed Pittsburgh for St. Louis—the capitaal of the new Louisiana Territory—via the Ohio River in the summer of 1803, gathering supplies, equipment, and personnel along the way. Between 1804 and 1806, the Corp of Discovery explored thousands of miles of the Missouri and Columbia River watersheds, searching for an all-water route to the Pacific Ocean. Generally sharing leadership responsibilities with William Clark, although technically the leader, Lewis led the expedition safely across the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific and back, with the loss of just one man, Charles Floyd, who died of apparent appendicitis. In the course of the journey, Lewis observed, collected, and described hundreds of plants and animal species previously unknown to science. The expedition was the first point of Euro-American contact for several Native American tribes; through translators and sign language, Lewis conducted rudimentary ethnographic studies of the peoples he encountered, even as he laid the groundwork for a trade economy to ensure American hegemony over its vast new interior territory.

On August 11, 1806, near the end of the expedition, Lewis was shot in the left thigh by Pierre Cruzatte, a near-blind man under his command, while both were hunting for elk. His wound hampered him for the rest of the journey.

Return and gubernatorial duties

After returning from the expedition, Lewis received a reward of 1,400 acres (5.7 km²) of land. In 1807, Jefferson appointed him governor of the Louisiana Territory; he settled in St. Louis. Lewis was a poor administrator, often quarreling with local political leaders and failing to keep in touch with his superiors in Washington.

Lewis was a Freemason, initiated, passed and raised in Door To Virtue Lodge No. 44 in Albemarle, VA between 1796 and 1797. On August 2, 1808, Lewis and several of his acquaintances submitted a petition to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in which they requested a dispensation to establish a lodge in St. Louis. Lewis was nominated and recommended to serve as the first Master of the proposed Lodge, which was warranted as Lodge No. 111 on September 16, 1808.

Death

In September 1809 Lewis was traveling to Washington D.C. to answer complaints about his actions as governor. While en route he stopped at a tavern called Grinder's Stand, about 70 miles (110 km) from Nashville, Tennessee, on the Natchez Trace on October 10th. The next morning Lewis was found with multiple gunshot wounds; he died shortly after sunrise.

While it is generally accepted by modern historians that his death was a suicide, there is some debate concerning this. Mrs Grinder the tavern-keeper's wife claimed that Lewis was acting strangely the night before his death. She claimed that during the dinner Lewis would stand and pace about the room while speaking to himself. His manner of speech struck her as if he was speaking as a lawyer. After Lewis had retired for the evening Mrs Grinder continued to hear Lewis talking to himself. At some point during the night Mr Grinder heard multiple gunshots and what she believed to be a voice asking for assistance. She claimed to be able to see Lewis through the slit in the door crawling back to his room. Why Mrs Grinder did not inquire as to the status of Lewis or the source of the gunshots has never been explained. The next morning when she sent for Lewis's servants they found him near death.

Later when Clark and Jefferson were informed of Lewis's death both accepted the belief it was suicide, his family however contended it was murder. In later years a court of inquiry was held charging the tavern-keeper with Lewis's death. The inquiry was dropped for lack of evidence or motive.

The explorer was buried not far from where he died. He is honored today by a memorial along the Natchez Trace Parkway.

Legacy

Due to his shy personality, Lewis never married. Although he died without legitimate heirs, he does have the putative DNA model haplotype for his paternal ancestors lineage, which was that of the Warner Hall. He was also related to Robert E Lee and Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, among others. He was related to George Washington by marriage: his first cousin once removed was Fielding Lewis, Washington's brother-in-law. He was also a second cousin once removed of Washington's on his father's side.

For many years, Lewis's legacy was overlooked, inaccurately assessed, and even tarnished by his alleged suicide. Yet his contributions to science, the exploration of the Western U.S., and the lore of great world explorers, are considered incalculable.

Four years after Lewis's death, Thomas Jefferson wrote:

Of courage undaunted, possessing a firmness and perseverance of purpose which nothing but impossibilities could divert from its direction, ... honest, disinterested, liberal, of sound understanding and a fidelity to truth so scrupulous that whatever he should report would be as certain as if seen by ourselves, with all these qualifications as if selected and implanted by nature in one body for this express purpose, I could have no hesitation in confiding the enterprise to him.

Jefferson also stated that Lewis had a "luminous and discriminating intellect."

The alpine plant Lewisia (family Portulacaceae), popular in rock gardens, is named after Lewis, as is Lewis's Woodpecker. Geographic names that honor him include Lewis County, Idaho, Lewis County, Tennessee; Lewisburg, Tennessee; Lewiston, Idaho; Lewis County, Washington; the U.S. Army fort Fort Lewis, Washington, the home of the US Army 1st Corps (I Corps), and especially Lewis and Clark County, Montana, the home of the capital city, Helena.

The US Navy Polaris nuclear submarine USS Lewis and Clark was named for him and William Clark.

References

External links

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