Definitions

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Spells in Harry Potter

Spells in Harry Potter occur in the wizarding world of the series of books by author J. K. Rowling. Magic spells are used by many of the characters to achieve useful effects without the benefit of modern technology. The main depiction of a "spell" in the Harry Potter books consists of a gesture made with the character's wand, combined with a spoken or mental incantation. In the books and their associated film series, the names of the majority of these spells or the incantations used to effect them are derived from the Classical languages, particularly Latin. These names are not grammatically correct in any language; most spoken phrases resemble Latin words of appropriate meaning but are not proper Latin themselves.

In Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, the concept of casting spells nonverbally is introduced. Earlier, every spell cast by the principal characters had been accompanied by the appropriate voiced incantation, although advanced adult practitioners of magic had cast nonverbal spells in previous books. Consequently, the incantations used for some spells introduced in Half-Blood Prince and its sequel Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows are not available.

Spells are listed here by their incantations (when known), with their vernacular names in parenthesis. Some spells have no known incantation – the only reference in the text is by an informal name, either because in its only appearance in the relevant book it was cast nonverbally, or because it was never depicted in the books, only mentioned. The majority of spells cast in duels between adult characters in all seven books appear nonverbally; only their effects can identify such spells.

A

Accio (Summoning Charm)

Pronunciation: Various suggestions have been made, including:
['ɑkkio] (AK-ee-o) - classical Latin (film, video game)
['ɑksio] (AK-see-o) - (audio book)
['æsio] (AH-see-o) - (Scholastic) English

Description: This charm summons an object to the caster, potentially over a significant distance.
Seen/Mentioned: First mentioned in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, when it was briefly used by Molly Weasley on the Weasley twins to confiscate their Weasleys' Wizard Wheezes' products from their pockets, before they left for the Quidditch World Cup. Hermione was also mentioned trying to learn this charm during aboard the Hogwarts Express. Later on in the same book, Harry summons his broom to complete the First Task of the Triwizard Tournament. Near the end of the book, Harry summons a Portkey he can't reach to escape from the Battle in the Graveyard. Also seen in Half-Blood Prince and Deathly Hallows to try to summon Horcruxes, and Harry tries to summon a falling Rubeus Hagrid. One of the Death Eaters tried to snatch Harry's Invisibility Cloak using this charm, but did not work.
Suggested Etymology: The Latin word accio means "I call" or "I summon".In the Hungarian translation, the spell is called "Invito", possibly from the word "to invite".

(Age-Line Spell)

Description: Creates a line that is impassable by people below a set age.
Seen/Mentioned: Seen only in Goblet of Fire, Albus Dumbledore cast this spell to stop underage students from placing their names into the Goblet of Fire.
Notes: Fred and George Weasley, along with several other students made failed attempts to (though underage) pass the line using age potions. Fred and George claimed that this was the ultimate potion, but when they attempted to cross the line, it resulted in growing white beards.

Aguamenti (Aguamenti Charm)

Pronunciation: AH-gwa-MEN-tee (IPA: /a.gwə.'mɛn.ti/)
Description: Produces a jet of water from the caster's wand.
Seen/Mentioned: First named in Half-Blood Prince, when Harry is being taught how to perform this specific charm in professor Flitwick's class. Later Harry casts this spell in an attempt to create water for Dumbledore to drink after taking Voldemort's potionand then to douse Hagrid's hut after it is set on fire later. Then in Deathly Hallows, Hermione Granger uses it to put out Mundungus' searing eyebrows after Harry accidentally set them on fire. Later on, Harry uses it in a failed attempt to douse Vincent Crabbe's Fiendfyre curse in the Room of Requirement.
Suggested Etymology: The Latin word aqua which has morphed into modern languages like Portuguese as água which means "water", combined with a form of the Latin verb mentio which means to "speak, mention, or proclaim".

Alohomora

Pronunciation: ah-LOH-huh-MOR-ah (IPA: /ə'lo.həˌmo.ɹə/)
Description: Used to open andor unlock doors, but doors may be bewitched so that this spell has no effect.
Seen/Mentioned: Used throughout the series, first use by Hermione in Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone. Later unsuccessfully cast by Ron, on the door from the room with the winged keys in Hogwarts. Loses use gradually in the series as the characters discover more and more doors, chests etc. with counter-charms on them (e.g. The doors into Professor Snape's and Professor Umbridge's offices are mentioned as being Alohomora-proof.)
Etymology: From the West African Sidiki dialect used in geomancy meaning: Friendly to thieves as stated by J.K. Rowling in testimony during the WB and JKR vs. RDR Books

Anapneo

Pronunciation: ah-NAP-nee-oh (IPA: /ə.'næp.ni.əʊ/)
Description: Clears the target's airway, if blocked.
Seen/Mentioned: Shown in Half-Blood Prince, Horace Slughorn casts this spell on Marcus Belby when the latter begins to choke.
Suggested Etymology: The Greek word anapneo which means "to draw breath or to revive".

(Anti-Cheating Spell)

Description: Cast on parchment or quills to prevent the writer from cheating while writing answers.
Seen/Mentioned: Mentioned in Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone and Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix as being cast on quills and exam papers for exams at Hogwarts.

(Anti-Disapparation Jinx)

Description: Used to prevent Disapparation in an area for a time. Presumably can be used to prevent an enemy from entering a defended area, or used to trap an enemy in an area.
Seen/Mentioned: Mentioned in Order of the Phoenix, used by Dumbledore to trap several Death Eaters in the Department of Mysteries. Also, cast long ago on Hogwarts, the reason why (As Hermione quotes innumerable times throughout the series) "No one can Apparate or Disapparate inside the Hogwarts grounds." In Deathly Hallows, Death Eaters had cast this spell, preventing the trio from escaping Hogsmeade.

(Antonin Dolohov's Curse)

Description: This curse causes serious internal injury, but does not show any external symptoms. It is described as cast with "a slashing motion", sending out a streak of purple flames.
Seen/Mentioned: Seen only in Order of the Phoenix, this spell is cast three times by Antonin Dolohov during the battle between the Death Eaters and members of Dumbledore's Army at the Ministry of Magic. All three times it is shown cast non-verbally, although one time this was due to Dolohov having previously been hit by the Silencing Charm and hence unable to speak.

Aparecium

Pronunciation: AH-par-EE-see-um (IPA: /æ.pə'ɹi.si.ʌm/)
Description: This spell makes invisible ink appear.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, when Hermione tries to make hidden writing appear in Tom Marvolo Riddle's diary.
Notes: See also Specialis Revelio.
Suggested Etymology: The Latin word appareo which means "to become visible or to appear".

(Atmospheric Charm)

Description: Presumably causes weather patterns to be created.
Seen/Mentioned: It was said in Deathly Hallows that a malfunction of this spell may have been causing offices in the Ministry to rain.

Avada Kedavra (Killing Curse)

Pronunciation: ah-VAH-dah kuh-DAHV-rah (IPA: )
Description: causes a bright green flash and a rushing noise; the curse causes instant death to the victim. There is no known counter-curse or blocking spell (with the exception of the curse striking another spell midflight, negating both), although the caster can be interrupted, the victim can dodge the green jet, hide behind solid objects (which burst into flame when hit by it), or, if the casting wizard is not sufficiently competent, the curse may be completely ineffective as described by Barty Crouch Jr (acting as Alastor Moody) in Goblet of Fire. Harry twice countered this spell by casting Expelliarmus. It is one of the three Unforgivable Curses; the use of this spell on another human being renders a life sentence in Azkaban.
The magical conditions have also been documented to defeat the curse, even on a direct hit:
* Harry Potter was given magical protection against Lord Voldemort's use of the curse, when his mother sacrificed herself to save him.
* Harry is saved by the twin cores effect between his wand and Voldemort's during a duel, as well as during a battle. During this battle, Harry's phoenix feather wand snaps the wand Voldemort borrowed from one of his servants, Lucius Malfoy. The reason for this is unknown. Dumbledore believes this feat to be due to the unique connections and relationships between the two duellists, which are complex and are "realms of magic hitherto unknown".
* In Deathly Hallows, Harry is saved twice. The first time because when Voldemort tried to kill Harry as a baby, a piece of Voldemort's soul flaked off and was trapped within Harry himself (giving Harry a connection to, and many of the powers of, Voldemort). When the killing curse hit Harry in the Forbidden Forest, it killed the piece of Voldemort's soul trapped in Harry, and sent Harry to a nether region where Voldemort's use of Harry's blood gave Harry a lifeline back to the world of the living, should he choose to use it, and he decided to return to life. The second time, Harry was able to deflect the curse back at Voldemort (who died from it) because of a special condition involving the Elder Wand. This had been 'won' by Draco when he disarmed Dumbledore of his wand, but none understood this at the time, and Draco did not use the Elder Wand. Harry had won Draco's wand in a life-or-death duel, thereby proving to the Elder Wand that Harry should be the wand's true master. Therefore, when Harry used Draco's wand to cast Expelliarmus against Voldemort's killing curse, the killing curse rebounded on Voldemort leaving Harry unharmed.

Seen/Mentioned: First said (not by name) at the beginning of the first book when Harry arrives at the Dursley's home. First seen in Goblet of Fire against Muggle Frank Bryce, and in every book following.
Suggested Etymology: During an audience interview at the Edinburgh Book Festival (15 April 2004) Rowling said: "Does anyone know where avada kedavra came from? It is an ancient spell in Aramaic, and it is the original of abracadabra, which means 'let the thing be destroyed.' Originally, it was used to cure illness and the 'thing' was the illness, but I decided to make it the 'thing' as in the person standing in front of me. I take a lot of liberties with things like that. I twist them round and make them mine.

Avis

Pronunciation: AH-vis (IPA: /a'vɪs/)
Description: This charm creates a flock of birds that pour forth from the caster's wand. When coupled with Oppugno, it can be used offensively.
Seen/Mentioned: Shown in Goblet of Fire, cast by Mr Ollivander to test Viktor Krum's wand. In Half-blood Prince, it is cast by Hermione, followed by Oppugno which causes the birds to attack Ron Weasley.
Suggested Etymology: The Latin word avis which means, "bird".

B

(Banishing Charm)

Description: Opposite to "Accio".
Seen/Mentioned: Seen in Goblet of Fire, cast by Hermione who perfectly banishes a cushion into a box which is their target in their Charms class. To Harry's great surprise, he also perfectly banishes a cushion during this lesson.

(Bat-Bogey Hex)

Description: Grotesquely enlarges the target's bogeys, gives them wings, and sets them attacking the target.
Seen/Mentioned: Ginny Weasley is depicted as an accomplished caster of this particular spell. She is shown to use it in Order of the Phoenix on Draco Malfoy, and in Half-Blood Prince on Zacharias Smith.

(Bedazzling Hex)

Description: Similar to a Disillusionment Charm, it can be used to conceal a person or an object. Is also used to make invisibility cloaks.
Seen/Mentioned: Mentioned in Deathly Hallows by Xenophilius Lovegood when speaking of the different methods by which Invisibility Cloaks may be created.

(Bubble-Head Charm)

Description: Puts a large bubble of air around the head of the user. Used as a magical equivalent of a breathing set.
Seen/Mentioned: in Goblet of Fire, Cedric Diggory and Fleur Delacour use this charm underwater in the second task of the Triwizard Tournament. In Order of the Phoenix, it is described as used by many Hogwarts students when walking through the hallways, because of the bad smells caused by the various pranks played on Dolores Umbridge.

C

(Caterwauling Charm)

Description: Anyone entering the perimeter of a Caterwauling Charm sets off a high-pitched shriek.
Seen/Mentioned: Mentioned in Deathly Hallows, cast by Death Eaters over Hogsmeade to protect against intruders.
Note: Similar to an intruder charm: they both produce an alarm if the vicinity is disturbed.

Cave Inimicum

Pronunciation: KAH-vay ih-NIH-mih-kum (IPA: )
Description: Spell used to strengthen an enclosure from enemies.
Seen/Mentioned: Shown only in Deathly Hallows, cast by Hermione and Harry Potter to strengthen their campsites' defences.
Etymology: Correct Classical Latin for "Beware the enemy", from the verb caveo and the noun inimicus.

(Cheering Charm)

Description: Causes the person upon whom the spell was cast to become happy and contented, though heavy-handedness with the spell may cause the person to break into an uncontrollable laughing fit.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban.

Colloportus

Pronunciation: cul-loh-POR-tus (IPA: /kɔ.lo.ˈpɔ˞.təs/)
Description: Magically locks a door, preventing it from being opened by Muggle means.
Seen/Mentioned: First in Order of the Phoenix, cast by Hermione in the Department of Mysteries.
Notes: This spell functions as the counter spell to Alohomora
Suggested Etymology: The Greek word kollao which means, "to join closely together, bind closely" with the Latin word porta meaning "a gate".

(Colour-Change Charm)

Description: Changes an object's colour.
Seen/Mentioned: Attempted by Ron on initial trip to Hogwarts; Mentioned in Harry's Ordinary Wizarding Levels in Order of the Phoenix.

Confringo (Blasting Curse)

Pronunciation: con-FRIN-goh (hard "g") or con-FRIN-joh (IPA: /kʌn.ˈfɹɪŋ.gəʊ/ or /kʌn.ˈfɹɪn.dʒəʊ/)
Description: Causes anything that the spell meets to explode.
Seen/Mentioned: Seen only in Deathly Hallows. In the opening chapters, it is cast by Harry to destroy the sidecar of the flying motorbike. Later, it is used by Hermione in an attempt to kill Nagini and facilitate an escape from Bathilda Bagshot's house in Godric's Hollow.
Suggested Etymology: The Latin word confringo which means, "to break in pieces, to bring to naught".

Confundo (Confundus Charm)

Pronunciation: con-FUN-doh (IPA: /kʌn.ˈfʌn.dəʊ/)
Description: Causes the victim to become confused and befuddled.
Seen/Mentioned: First mentioned in Prisoner of Azkaban, when Severus Snape suggests that Harry and Hermione had been Confunded to believe Sirius Black's claim to innocence. In Goblet of Fire, it is suggested that a powerful Confundus Charm is responsible for the Goblet choosing a fourth Triwizard contestant. It is first seen in action when Hermione uses it on Cormac McLaggen during Quidditch tryouts in Half-Blood Prince. Its vernacular name is first revealed when Harry uses it on security guards during the Gringotts break-in in Deathly Hallows.
Suggested Etymology: The Latin word confundo which means, "to confuse, throw into disorder".

(Conjunctivitus Curse)

Description: A curse that causes great pain to the victim's eyes.
Seen/Mentioned: It is suggested by Sirius in Goblet of Fire as a means for defeating a dragon for the first task of the Triwizard Tournament, and used by Krum for this purpose. Mentioned in Order of the Phoenix as cast by Madame Maxime against giants.

Crucio (Cruciatus Curse)

Pronunciation: KROO-see-oh/KROO-shee-OH (IPA: /ˈkɹu.si.əʊ/)
Description: Inflicts unbearable pain on the recipient of the curse. The effects of the curse depend upon the desires and emotions of the character - to produce the "excruciating" pain implied by the name, one must (according to Bellatrix Lestrange) desire to cause pain purely for its own sake. The extreme pain inflicted by the curse when cast so - without any apparent evidence of physical harm - makes it uniquely suited as a form of torture. One of the three Unforgivable Curses.
Seen/Mentioned: first seen in Goblet of Fire introduced by Barty Crouch Jr (acting as Moody) and used on a spider. Used regularly by the Death Eaters as torture, and by Voldemort as punishment, even against his servants. Used twice by Harry on Death Eaters.
Suggested Etymology: Crucio (Latin) means "I torture" originating from crux (genitive crucis), which means "torture platform or stake" or, more specifically "cross". The word excruciating is descended from the same root - crucifixion was a form of torturous execution. In the novels, the verbal form of the word is 'cruciate', as when Amycus Carrow says in the final book "I’ll Cruciate the lot of ’em."

(Cushioning Charm)

Description: Creates an invisible cushioned area.
Seen/Mentioned: Mentioned in Quidditch Through the Ages, cast on broomsticks to provide a more comfortable ride. Shown in Deathly Hallows, used to cushion Harry, Ron, and Hermione's fall in Gringotts and Hogwarts.

D

Defodio (Gouging Spell)

Pronunciation: deh-FOH-dee-oh (IPA: dɛ.ˈfəʊ.di.əʊ/)
Seen/Mentioned: Cast by Harry, Ron and Hermione in Deathly Hallows to help dig their way out of the Gringotts Tunnels.
Suggested Etymology: Latin defodio, meaning, "to dig, dig out."

Deletrius

Pronunciation: deh-LEE-tree-us (IPA: /də.'li.tɹi.əs/)
Seen/Mentioned: Seen only in Goblet of Fire when Amos Diggory gets rid of the echo of the Dark Mark from Harry's wand.
Suggested Etymology: English word delete meaning to remove.

Densaugeo

Pronunciation: den-SAW-jee-oh /dɛn.'sɔ.dʒi.əʊ/)
Description: Causes the teeth of the recipient to grow at an alarming rate.
Seen/Mentioned: Seen only in Goblet of Fire, cast by Draco on Harry, which is then deflected onto Hermione.
Suggested Etymology: Latin dens meaning, "tooth" and augeo meaning to "enlarge".

Deprimo

Pronunciation: DEH-prih-moh.
Seen/Mentioned: Introduced in Deathly Hallows when Hermione casts this to blast a hole in the Lovegood's living room floor.
Suggested Etymology: Latin deprimo which means to "dig deep".

Descendo

Pronunciation: deh-SEN-doh (IPA: /dɛ.ˈsɛn.dəʊ/)
Seen/Mentioned: Seen twice in Deathly Hallows, it is cast by Ron to magically cause the stairs in his room to descend, and later by Crabbe in the Room of Requirement to lower the wall behind which Ron is hiding.
Suggested Etymology: Latin descendo meaning, "to come down, to descend".

Diffindo (Severing Charm)

Pronunciation: dif-FIN-doh (IPA: /dɪ.'fɪn.dəʊ/)
Seen/Mentioned: In Goblet of Fire when Harry urgently wants to talk to Cedric he casts this spell to rip his bag, delaying him for class,also in " Order Of The Pheonix, Harry tries to cut the ropes wrapped around him but the spell fails, and in Half-Blood Prince to switch covers of his potion books. Also shown several times in Deathly Hallows, for cutting ropes, chains, etc.
Suggested Etymology: Latin diffindo, "I divide."

(Disillusionment Charm)

Seen/Mentioned: First in Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, when Dumbledore tells Harry that he does not need a cloak to become invisible. In Order of the Phoenix, Moody casts this charm on Harry. Mentioned in Half-Blood Prince on a purple leaflet from the Ministry of Magic. Xenophilius Lovegood mentions, in Deathly Hallows, that Invisibility Cloaks are sometimes created by casting a Disillusionment Charm on a regular cloak. Also in Deathly Hallows, Draco Malfoy, Vincent Crabbe and Gregory Goyle use the charm to hide outside the Room of Requirement.
Notes: The described sensation of a Disillusionment Charm is a feeling "something cold and wet trickling down your back." When the charm is lifted, the subject feels something hot trickling down their back.

Dissendium

Pronunciation: dis-EN-dee-um (IPA: /dɪ.'sɛn.di.əm/)
Description: Causes the statue of the humpbacked witch hiding the secret passage to Honeydukes, as well as other hidden passageways, to open up.
Seen/Mentioned: Seen only in Prisoner of Azkaban.
Suggested Etymology: Latin discedo meaning "I swerve".

Duro

Pronunciation: DOO-roh (IPA: })
Description: Turns its target to stone.
Seen/Mentioned: Seen in Deathly Hallows, cast by Hermione while escaping from Death Eaters in Hogwarts.
Suggested Etymology Latin duro meaning "I make hard".

E

Engorgio (Engorgement Charm)

Pronunciation: en-GOR-jee-oh (IPA: /ɪn.'gɔ˞.dʒi.əʊ/)
Description: Causes objects to swell in size.
Seen/Mentioned: A "Growth Charm" with the same effect is briefly mentioned. Hagrid is suspected of having performed the charm on his pumpkins in Chamber of Secrets. Next seen in the Goblet of Fire: Mentioned by Mr. Weasley as a probable charm used on Ton-Tongue Toffees which engorged Dudley's tongue when the Weasleys fetched Harry for the Quidditch World Cup; when Barty Crouch Jr, impersonating Moody, casts it on a spider to enhance a demonstration of the effects of the Cruciatus Curse; and Ron suggested it might be the cause of Hagrid's abnormal size before learning that he is half-giant. Harry in Deathly Hallows also cast it on a spider.
Suggested Etymology: English word engorge meaning "to fill to excess".

(Entrail-Expelling Curse)

Description: Presumably causes the entrails (i.e. intestines) to be ejected from the body.
Seen/Mentioned: First mentioned in Order of the Phoenix when Harry visits St Mungo's following Arthur Weasley's attack by Nagini while guarding the Department of Mysteries.
Suggested Etymology: English word expel meaning "to drive or force out or away".
Notes: The spell is listed under a portrait of Urquhart Rackharrow, 1612-1697, who is known for being the spell's inventor.

Episkey

Pronunciation: eh-PIS-key (IPA: /ɛpɪ'ski/)
Description: Used to heal relatively minor injuries. When this spell is cast, the person feels their injured body part go very hot and then very cold.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in Goblet of Fire after the first task of the Triwizard Tournament. In Half-Blood Prince, Nymphadora Tonks uses this spell to fix Harry's broken nose; also used by Harry in the same book to fix Demelza Robins' mouth.
Suggested Etymology: Greek episkeu meaning "repair, restoration".
Notes: Rowling writes in Half-Blood Prince that Harry's knowledge tells him this spell could belong to a family (or variety) of Healing Spells.

Erecto

Pronunciation: ee-RECK-toh or eh-RECK-toh (IPA: /ɪ.ˈɹɛk.təʊ/ or /ə.ˈɹɛk.təʊ/)
Description: Used to erect a tent or other structure.
Seen/Mentioned: Possibly used in Goblet of Fire by wizards at the campsites near the Quidditch World Cup. Used by Hermione and Harry to construct shelter for themselves and Ron in Deathly Hallows.
Suggested Etymology: Latin erectus meaning "to set up, to raise".

Evanesco (Vanishing Spell)

Pronunciation: ev-an-ES-koh (IPA: (IPA: /ɛ.vn̩.'ɛs.kəʊ/)
Description: Makes the target vanish.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in Order of the Phoenix by Snape to make Harry's potions disappear from his cauldron. In addition, when Fred and George were showing off their puking pastilles, Lee Jordan cleared the bucket of vomit with the Evanesco spell. During their stay at #12, Grimmauld Place, Bill uses this on a stack of documents. This suggests that Vanished objects can be recovered.
Suggested Etymology: Latin evanesco meaning "to vanish".
Notes: According to Minerva McGonagall, in Deathly Hallows, Vanished objects and organisms go "into non-being, which is to say, everything." This was McGonagall's response to the question, "Where do Vanished objects go?" from the doorknocker at Ravenclaw Tower.

Expecto Patronum (Patronus Charm)

Pronunciation: ex-PEK-toh pa-TROH-num
Description: Conjures an incarnation of the caster's innermost positive feelings, such as joy, hope, or the desire to survive, known as a Patronus. A Patronus is conjured as a protector, and is a weapon rather than a predator of souls: Patronuses shield their conjurors from Dementors, and can even drive them away. A Patronus "cannot feel despair, as real humans can, so Dementors can't hurt it. The conjured Patronus protects the witch or wizard that summoned it, obeys his or her commands, and fades away shortly after it is no longer required. When conjured, a Patronus appears silvery, ethereal, and semi-transparent. Improperly formed Patronuses range from momentary formless bursts of silvery mist, to poorly-defined forms which are easily defeated or quickly dissipate on their own. A full-fledged (or corporeal) Patronus takes on a fixed animal form that is often significant to the witch or wizard casting the charm. Patronuses summoned by a particular person have been known to change, such as Tonks' patronus. Rowling has said that Snape was the only Death Eater to be able to produce a Patronus. According to her this is 'because a Patronus is used against things that the Death Eaters generally generate, or fight alongside. They would not need Patronuses'. According to Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, the Charm is also the only known defensive spell against Lethifolds.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in Prisoner of Azkaban when a Dementor appears in the Hogwarts Express, and Hermione says that Remus Lupin repelled the Dementor by casting a silvery object from his wand. Harry's corporeal Patronus first appears when Draco Malfoy & his friends dress up as Dementors in an attempt to sabotage Harry, he decides to ask Lupin to teach him how to defend himself against the dementors and takes classes where a boggart takes the form of a dementor. He then uses it again towards the end of the book while trying to repel hundreds of Dementors from Sirius and himself.
Notes: Dumbledore has devised a method of using Patronuses to deliver messages putting it into the exclusive use of the Order of the Phoenix. Members of the Order are the only wizards who know how to use their spirit guardians to send messages to one another. According to Rowling, the Patronus is "an immensely efficient messenger" as it is not hindered by physical obstructions or dark matters. Each Patronus has a special quality and appearance that is different and easy to recognise, which makes it clear which Order member has sent the message. In addition, since no one can conjure another person's Patronus, this method of communication does not carry the risk of passing fake messages. It is noteworthy that in Deathly Hallows, McGonagall creates three Patronuses simultaneously to call for Professors Flitwick, Sprout, and Slughorn.
Suggested Etymology: Expecto Patronum is Latin for "I await a protector". It is related to "pater" (father) and Harry's Patronus indeed takes the same form as that of his father's (a stag).

Expelliarmus (Disarming Charm)

Pronunciation: ex-pel-ee-AR-mus (IPA: /ɛks.ˌpɛ.li.'a˞.mɪs/)
Description:Produces a jet of red light. This spell is used to disarm another wizard, typically by causing the victim's wand to fly out of reach. It can also throw the target backwards when enough power is put into it. As demonstrated in Prisoner of Azkaban, simultaneous use of this spell by multiple witches or wizards on a single person can throw the wizard back with much greater force.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in Chamber of Secrets, when Snape disarms Gilderoy Lockhart in the Duelling Club; from then on it is commonly used throughout the rest of the series. Draco uses it to disarm Dumbledore and Harry uses the spell to not only disarm Gregory Goyle in the Room of Requirement, but also to reflect Voldemort's killing curse during the final battle. It is seen by the Death Eaters as Harry's signature spell, as he had used it to duel Voldemort in both Goblet of Fire and Deathly Hallows.
Suggested Etymology: Latin expello meaning "to expel, to thrust away" and Latin arma meaning "weapons of war".

Expulso

Pronunciation: ecks-PUL-soh (IPA: /ɛks.ˈpʊl.səʊ/)
Description: A spell which causes objects that it comes in contact with to violently explode.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by a Death Eater in an attempt to capture Harry in Deathly Hallows.
Suggested Etymology: Latin pulso meaning "to strike".

F

Ferula

Pronunciation: feh-ROO-lah (IPA: /fɛ.'ɹu.lə/)
Description: Creates a bandage and a splint.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Lupin in Prisoner of Azkaban to bind Ron's broken leg.
Suggested Etymology: Latin ferula meaning "a stick".

(Fidelius Charm)

Description: A charm involving secret information hidden within the soul of a Secret-Keeper. This information is irretrievable until the Secret-Keeper chooses to reveal it; those who have the secret revealed to them cannot reveal it to others.
Seen/Mentioned: In Prisoner of Azkaban, it is explained that when Harry was an infant, he and his parents, James and Lily Potter, were hidden from Voldemort by this charm. Later, in Order of the Phoenix, the charm is used to hide the location of the headquarters for the Order of the Phoenix. Order members in Deathly Hallows also use it to protect their homes.
Suggested Etymology: Latin fidelis meaning "confidants".
Notes: Rowling previously stated that when a Secret-Keeper dies, the Secret they held can never be revealed to anyone else; the people who were told before the Secret-Keeper's death will still know the secret, but after the death of the Secret-Keeper no one new can be brought into the circle of knowledge. However, in Deathly Hallows, it is explained that upon the Keeper's death, all those who have been told the secret become Secret-Keepers in turn, and can pass the secret on to others.

(Fiendfyre)

Description: Fiendfyre is an extremely powerful cursed fire, the flames of which take the shape of fantastic creatures that pursue those caught in its path. It is shown to be capable of destroying Horcruxes.
Seen/Mentioned: Appears only once in the series when Draco, Crabbe, and Goyle corner Harry in the Room of Hidden Things (one manifestation of the Room of Requirement). Crabbe casts Fiendfyre, which become flaming beasts that pursue Harry, Ron, and Hermione and devour every object within the Room, including Crabbe and the diadem Horcrux.
Suggested Etymology: English fiend meaning "enemy" and Old English fyr meaning "fire".
Notes: Hermione reveals she was aware that Fiendfyre could potentially destroy a Horcrux but that she never considered using it for that purpose because it was too dangerous to use.

Finite Incantatem

Pronunciation: fi-NEE-tay in-can-TAH-tem (IPA: )
Description: Negates many spells or the effects of many spells.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione in the Chamber of Secrets to stop a rogue bludger bewitched by Dobby. Snape uses it in Chamber of Secrets to restore order in the Duelling Club when Harry and Draco are duelling. Lupin uses the short form "Finite" in Order of the Phoenix. In Deathly Hallows, Hermione suggests to Ron to attempt to use this spell to stop it raining in Yaxley's office. Harry used Finite to counter Crabbe's Descendo attack on Ron in the same book.
Suggested Etymology: Latin finio meaning "to put an end to" and Latin cantio meaning "enchantment".

Flagrate

Pronunciation: fluh-GRAYT, FLAH-grayt, fluh-GRAH-tay (IPA: /flə.ˈɡɹæ.te/)
Description: With this spell, the caster's wand can leave fiery marks.
Seen/Mentioned: Cast by Tom Riddle in The Chamber of Secrets to spell out 'Tom Marvolo Riddle' and switch it to 'I am Lord Voldemort' also cast by Hermione in Order of the Phoenix to identify doors of the Department of Mysteries which members of Dumbledore's Army had already opened, by marking them with an 'X'.
Suggested Etymology: Latin flagro meaning "glowing".

(Flagrante Curse)

Description: Causes any object affected to burn human skin when touched.
Seen/Mentioned: Seen in the Lestranges' vault in Deathly Hallows, as a criminal deterrent.
Suggested Etymology: Latin flagrantia meaning "burning, blazing".

(Flame-Freezing Charm)

Description: Causes fire to become harmless to those caught in it, creating only a gentle, tickling sensation instead of burns.
Seen/Mentioned: Mentioned in the first chapter of Prisoner of Azkaban in the book History of Magic which Harry is reading to do his homework. Witches and wizards used this spell during medieval burnings. It is also said in A History of Magic that Wendelin the Weird enjoyed being "burned," so she would openly tell people that she was a witch just so she could be caught and burned; no less then forty-seven times in different names.

(Flying Charm)

Description: Cast on broomsticks, and (presumably) magic carpets to make them fly.
Seen/Mentioned: Draco mentioned this spell when tauntingly asking Ron why would anyone cast a Flying Charm on Ron's broomstick in Order of the Phoenix during Ron's first Quidditch practice. It is also mentioned in Quidditch Through the Ages.

Furnuncular (Furnunculus Curse)

Pronunciation: fer-NUN-kyoo-lar
Description: Causes the target to become covered in boils.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Harry in Goblet of Fire on Draco, but was deflected onto Goyle instead. Also used later in the book when Draco tried to harass Harry on the Hogwarts Express and was hit with a couple of curses, including the Furnuculus Curse (which was cast by Harry).
Suggested Etymology: Latin furunculus originally meaning "petty thief" but later used to mean "boil" in English.

G

Geminio

Pronunciation: jeh-MIH-nee-oh or geh-MIH-nee-oh (hard "g") (IPA: /dʒə.ˈmɪ.ni.əʊ/ or /ɡə.ˈmɪ.ni.əʊ/)
Description: Creates a duplicate of any object upon which it is cast. As revealed by the goblin Griphook, any copies created are worthless.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione in Deathly Hallows to copy Salazar Slytherin's locket in order to hide their tracks from Umbridge.
Suggested Etymology: Latin gemino meaning "to double".

(Gemino Curse)

Description: Whenever an object affected by this curse is touched, it duplicates itself into many useless copies to hide the original. To add confusion and eventually fill the surrounding area with copies, the copies also duplicate.
Seen/Mentioned: Seen in Deathly Hallows when Harry, Ron, Hermione, and Griphook break into the Lestrange vault in Gringotts. Used to great effect as the room fills with useless duplicates.
Suggested Etymology: Latin gemino meaning "to double".

Glisseo

Pronunciation: GLISS-see-oh or gliss-SAY-oh (IPA: /ˈɡlɪs.si.əʊ/ or /ɡlɪs.ˈse.əʊ/)
Description: Causes the steps on a stairway to flatten and form a ramp or slide.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione to escape from pursuing Death Eaters in Deathly Hallows. Used on the girls dormitory to ensure that boys cannot get in.
Suggested Etymology: French glisser meaning "slide".

(Gripping Charm)

Description: Used to help someone grip something with more effectiveness. This charm is placed upon Quaffles to help Chasers carry the Quaffle whilst simultaneously holding their brooms.
Seen/Mentioned: Mentioned in Quidditch Through the Ages.

H

(Hover Charm)

Description: An object is levitated off the ground and moved according to the caster.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Dobby in Chamber of Secrets to which Harry is accused of using. Also used by Xenophilius to clear rubble off his stairs in Deathly Hallows.

(Hair-Thickening Charm)

Description: Thickens one's hair.
Seen/Mentioned: In Order of the Phoenix, Snape asserts that Alicia Spinnet used it on her eyebrows even though she was obviously hexed by a member of the Slytherin Quidditch team.

Homenum Revelio

Pronunciation: HOM-eh-num reh-VEH-lee-oh (IPA:
Description: Reveals humans near the caster.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Dumbledore to detect Harry under his Invisibility Cloak, but first named when used multiple times by various characters in Deathly Hallows..
Suggested Etymology: Latin homo/hominis meaning "person" and Latin revelo meaning "to unveil".

(Homorphus Charm)

Description: Causes an Animagus or transfigured object to assume its normal shape.
Seen/Mentioned: According to Lockhart, he used it to force the Wagga Wagga Werewolf to take its human form. It was, however, used by Lupin and Sirius on the rat named Scabbers to reveal that he was Peter Pettigrew in Prisoner of Azkaban.
Suggested Etymology: Latin homo meaning "person" and Greek morphosis meaning "shaping".

(Horton-Keitch Braking Charm)

Description: This spell was first used on the Comet 140 to prevent players from overshooting the goal posts and from flying off-sides.
Seen/Mentioned: Mentioned in Quidditch Through the Ages as the charm that gave the Comet 140 an advantage over the Cleansweep.

(Hurling Hex)

Description: Causes brooms to vibrate violently in the air and try to buck their rider off.
Seen/Mentioned: In Philosopher's Stone, Quirinus Quirrell may have been casting a wordless and wandless version of this spell on Harry's broom during his Quidditch match. Flitwick suggested that Harry's confiscated Firebolt may be jinxed with this spell.

I

Impedimenta (Impediment Jinx, Impediment Curse)

Pronunciation: im-ped-ih-MEN-tah (IPA: /ɪm.ˌpɛ.dɪ.'mɛn.ta/
Description: This hex is capable of tripping, freezing, binding, knocking back and generally impeding the target's progress towards the caster. The extent to which the spell's specific action can be controlled by the caster is not made clear. If this spell does bind it does eventually wear off as stated in Deathly Hallows.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in Goblet of Fire when Harry is practicing for the third task. Also used by Madam Hooch to shortly stop Harry from fighting with Draco. Also seen toward the end of Order of the Phoenix, when Harry is fighting the Death Eaters. Stronger uses of this spell seem capable of blowing targets away.
Suggested Etymology: Latin impedimentum (plural impedimenta) meaning "a hindrance" or "an impediment".

Imperio (Imperius Curse)

Pronunciation: im-PEER-ee-oh (ɪm.'pi.ɹi.ˌəʊ) (classical Latin: eem-PEHR-ee-oh (im.ˈpɛɾ.i.ˌɔ)
Description: Causes the victim of the curse to obey the spoken/unspoken commands of the caster. The experience of being controlled by this curse is described as a complete, wonderful release from any sense of responsibility or worry over one's actions, at the price of one's free will. Resisting the effect of the curse is possible, however, and several individuals have been able to successfully overcome it, including Harry and both of the Crouchs, who learn to resist the curse after being subjected to its effects for an extended period. Harry describes the feeling of being the caster as controlling a marionette through a wand (although Harry's particular experience is suspect due to his lack of commitment to casting Unforgivable Curses). One of the three Unforgivable Curses.
Seen/Mentioned: First mentioned (not by name) in the first book when Ron told Harry that Lucius Malfoy claimed himself being jinxed during the first war, thus Lucius evaded imprisonment. First seen in Goblet of Fire introduced by Barty Crouch Jr (acting as Moody) and used on a spider. Used by Harry in Deathly Hallows on a Gringotts goblin and Travers, and by the Death Eaters on Pius Thicknesse.
Suggested Etymology: Imperare is Latin for "to order, command", and is the root of several modern English words. Imperium means "command" or "domain", and imperio means (among other things) "with authority". (Compare to impero, "I command", and to crucio above.) Imperius is not, however, a Latin word.

(Imperturbable Charm)

Description: Makes objects such as doors impenetrable (by everything, including sounds and objects).
Seen/Mentioned: The spell is used by Mrs Weasley in Order of the Phoenix on the door of the room in which an Order meeting was being held, in order to prevent her sons, Fred and George, from eavesdropping (using their extendable ears).
Suggested Etymology: Latin imperturbatus meaning "calm" or "undisturbed".

Impervius (Impervius Charm)

Pronunciation: im-PURR-vee-uss (ɪm.'pɝ.vi.ˌɛs)
Description: This spell makes something repel (literally, become impervious to) substances and outside forces, including water.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione in Prisoner of Azkaban on Harry's glasses while in a Quidditch match and also by the Gryffindor Quidditch team in Order of the Phoenix, both times to allow team members to see in a driving rain. Also used in Deathly Hallows, first by Ron to protect objects in Yaxley's office from rain, and then by Hermione in an attempt to protect Harry, Ron and Griphook from the burning treasure in the Lestranges' vault.
Suggested Etymology: Latin impervious meaning "impassable".

Incarcerous

Pronunciation: in-CAR-ser-us (ɪn.'kaɹ.sɝ.ˌɪs)
Description: Ties someone or something up with ropes.
Seen/Mentioned: First heard in Order of the Phoenix, when Umbridge gets in a battle with the centaurs. Also used by Harry on the Inferi in Voldemort's Horcrux chamber, in Half-Blood Prince.
Suggested Etymology: English incarcerate meaning "to imprison" or "to confine".

Incendio

Pronunciation: in-SEN-dee-oh (ɪn.'sɛn.di.ˌəʊ)
Description: Produces fire.
Seen/Mentioned: It is first seen in Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone when Hagrid (non-verbally) produces fire out of his umbrella in the little house the Dursleys took refuge in (from the Hogwarts letters). In Half-Blood Prince, this spell is used several times in battle, for instance when Hagrid's hut is set ablaze.
Suggested Etymology: Latin incendo meaning "to set fire".

(Intruder Charm)

Description: Detects intruders and sounds an alarm.
Seen/Mentioned: Slughorn had it on a temporary Muggle owned house he was living in, allowing him to detect Dumbledore and Harry as they approached in Half-Blood Prince.It is possible that Alastor Moody had it on his house to set off charmed dustbins (which spewed litter at intruders) if there was an intruder on his property.

J

(Jelly-Legs Jinx)

Description: A jinx that renders its victim's legs temporarily useless, leaving them to wobble around helplessly until the effect wears off or the counter-jinx is performed.
Seen/Mentioned: First mentioned as one of the jinxes in the book Curses and Counter-Curses. Then used on Harry, practising for the Third Task of the Triwizard Tournament, by Hermione. At the end of the term, Draco, Crabbe and Goyle tried to harass Harry on the Hogwarts Express and were hit with a few hexes, curses and jinxes, including the Jelly-Legs Jinx (cast by George Weasley).

(Jelly-Brain Jinx)

Description: Presumably affects the target's mental processes.
Seen/Mentioned: During the September 1999 riot that took place during the Puddlemere/Holyhead Quidditch game, a lot of Harpy supporters were using this jinx.

(Jelly-Fingers Curse)

Description: Causes the target's fingers to become almost jelly-like to make it uneasy for the victim to grasp objects.
Seen/Mentioned: After a June 1999 Portree/Arrows Quidditch game, the losing Seeker accused his opposite number of putting this curse on him as they both closed in on the Snitch.

K

(Knee-Reversal Hex)

Description: Causes the victim's knees to appear on the opposite side of their legs.
Seen/Mentioned: In Quidditch Through the Ages, Gertie Keddle uses this hex when a man playing an early form of Quidditch comes to retrieve his ball from her garden.

L

Langlock

Pronunciation: LAN-glock ('leɪŋ.lɔk)
Description: Glues the subject's tongue to the roof of their mouth. Created by Snape.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Harry in Half-Blood Prince on Peeves and on Argus Filch, to general applause.
Suggested Etymology: Latin lingua meaning "a tongue" or "a language" and English lock meaning "to fasten".

Legilimens

Pronunciation: Le-JILL-ih-mens (lɛ.'dʒɪl.ɪ.ˌmɛnz)
Description: Allows the caster to delve into the mind of the victim, allowing the caster to see the memories, thoughts, and emotions of the victim.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Snape on Harry during Occlumency lessons in Order of the Phoenix. Also used non-verbally by Snape on Harry in Half-Blood Prince to allow him to see where Harry had learned the Sectumsempra spell.
Suggested Etymology: Latin legere meaning "to read" and Latin mens meaning "mind".
Notes: See also Legilimency for more information.

Levicorpus

Pronunciation: levi-COR-pus (nonverbal) (lɛvɪ.'kɔɹ.pɪs)
Description: The victim is dangled upside-down by one of their ankles, sometimes accompanied by a flash of white light.
Seen/Mentioned: It was originally shown to be a nonverbal-only spell, but by one of the mistakes in the Deathly Hallows, the text shows that Hermione whispers it to lift Harry so he can steal the Cup of Helga Hufflepuff. Harry learns it by reading the notes written by the Half-Blood Prince. He inadvertently uses it on Ron in Half-Blood Prince. In addition, in Order of Phoenix, Harry sees (through the Pensieve) his father, James Potter, use the spell against Snape. The counter curse is Liberacorpus.
Suggested Etymology: Latin levis meaning "light" and Latin corpus meaning "body".

Liberacorpus

Pronunciation: lib-er-ah-COR-pus (nonverbal) (lɪˌb.ɛ.ɹæ.'kɔɹ.pɪs)
Description: The counter spell to Levicorpus. :Seen/Mentioned: Harry uses the spell in Half-Blood Prince to counteract the Levicorpus spell he inadvertently casts on Ron. He also casts it on himself in Deathly Hallows after managing to retrieve the Horcrux from the shelf in the Lestranges vault.
Suggested Etymology: Latin liberare meaning "to free", and Latin corpus meaning "body".

Locomotor-

Pronunciation: loh-koh-MOH-tor (IPA: /ˌlo.ko.ˈmo.tɚ̩/)
Description: The spell is always used with the name of a target, at which the wand is pointed (e.g. "Locomotor Trunk!"). The spell causes the named object to rise in the air and move around at the will of the caster.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Tonks in Order of the Phoenix to move Harry's trunk from his room. Flitwick similarly uses it to move Sybill Trelawney's trunk after Umbridge sacks her. Parvati Patil and Lavender Brown use this spell to race their pencil cases around the edges of the table. A variation seen in Deathly Hallows is Piertotum Locomotor, which animated the suits of armour in Hogwarts.
Suggested Etymology: Latin loco meaning "to place" and Latin moto meaning "to move about".

Locomotor Mortis (Leg-Locker Curse)

Pronunciation: loh-koh-MOH-tor MOR-tis (IPA:
Description: Locks the legs together, preventing the victim from moving the legs in any fashion.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Draco on Neville Longbottom in Philosopher's Stone. Also mentioned further on in the book as Ron and Hermione prepare to use it on Snape during a Quidditch match. Used by Harry on Draco, who deflects it, in Half-Blood Prince.
Suggested Etymology: Latin loco meaning "to place", Latin moto meaning "to move about", and Latin mors/mortis meaning "death".

Lumos

Pronunciation: LOO-mos ('lu.məʊs)
Description: Creates a narrow beam of light that shines from the wand's tip, like a torch.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in Chamber of Secrets and then constantly throughout the series.
Suggested Etymology: Latin lumen meaning "light".
Notes: The counter spell, Nox, extinguishes the light. The caster of this spell can cast other spells while this spell is in effect.

M

Meteolojinx Recanto

Pronunciation: mee-tee-OH-loh-jincks reh-CAN-toh.
Description: Causes weather effects caused by incantations to cease.
Seen/Mentioned: Suggested in Deathly Hallows by Arthur Weasley to Ron (disguised by the Polyjuice Potion as Reginald 'Reg' Cattermole from Magical Maintenance) as the best way to clear up the incessant rain in Yaxley's office at the Ministry.
Suggested Etymology: Greek meteôrologia meaning "meteorology", English jinx meaning "to bring bad luck to", and Latin recanto meaning "to charm away".

Mobiliarbus

Pronunciation: MO-bil-ee-AR-bus (məʊ.ˌbɪl.i.'aɹ.bɪs)
Description: Lifts an object a few inches off the ground and levitates it to where the caster points their wand.
Seen/Mentioned: In Prisoner of Azkaban, Hermione uses the spell to move a Christmas Tree in The Three Broomsticks beside her table to hide Harry, who was in Hogsmeade illegally.
Suggested Etymology: Latin mobilito meaning "to set in motion" and Latin arbor/arbos meaning "a tree".

Mobilicorpus

Pronunciation: MO-bil-ee-COR-pus (IPA: /mo.ˌbɪl.i.ˈko˞.pɪs/)
Description: Lifts a body a few inches off the ground and levitates it where the caster points their wand
Seen/Mentioned: Sirius uses it on Snape in Prisoner of Azkaban.
Suggested Etymology: Latin mobilito meaning "to set in motion" and Latin corpus meaning "a body".

Morsmordre (Dark Mark)

Pronunciation: morz-MOR-druh or morz-MOHR-dray (IPA: /mo˞z.ˈmo˞.dɹʌ/ or /mo˞z.ˈmo˞.dɹe/)
Description: Conjures the Dark Mark, Voldemort's mark. It is conjured when the Death Eaters had killed someone in a place.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Barty Crouch Jr in Goblet of Fire. Also seen in Half-Blood Prince over the castle to lure Dumbledore to his death. Voldemort apparently invented it. According to Mr Weasley, very few wizards know how to cast this spell.
Suggested Etymology: Latin mors meaning "death", and French mordre (from Latin mordere) meaning "to bite."

Muffliato

Pronunciation: muf-lee-AH-to (mə.fli.'a.təʊ)
Description: Fills peoples' ears with an unidentifiable buzzing to keep them from hearing nearby conversations. Created by Snape
Seen/Mentioned: It is used in Half-Blood Prince by Harry and Ron on various teachers and people such as Madam Pomfrey. Hermione also uses it in Deathly Hallows in protection of the campsite where she and Harry stayed in hiding.
Suggested Etymology: English muffle meaning "to make a sound less distinct by covering its source".

N

Nox

Pronunciation: Noks ('naks)
Description: Ceases the Lumos spell on one's own wand.
Seen/Mentioned: In Prisoner of Azkaban, Harry and Hermione used this spell to turn off their wand-lights in the Shrieking Shack. Also used in Deathly Hallows when Harry was in the passage beneath the Whomping Willow which leads to the Shrieking Shack.
Suggested Etymology: Latin nox meaning \"night\".

O

(Obliteration Charm)

Description: Removes things not wished to be seen again.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione in Order of the Phoenix to remove the footprints that she, Harry, and Ron left in the snow. Also used in Deathly Hallows by Hermione to remove the footprints she and Harry leave behind them in the snow as they journey through Godric's Hollow.
Notes: The above instance in book five only reveals that the Obliteration Charm can remove footprints. There is no explanation as to what effect it can have on other things.

Obliviate (Memory Charm, Memory-Modifying Charm)

Pronunciation: oh-BLI-vee-ate (əʊ.'blɪ.vi.ˌeɪt
Description: Used to hide a memory of a particular event.
Seen/Mentioned: First used in Chamber of Secrets by Lockhart on Harry and Ron; the spell backfired due to a faulty wand, causing Lockhart to lose most of his own memory (which he never recovers). In Deathly Hallows, Hermione uses the spell on two Death Eaters who had followed Harry, Ron, and Hermione after their escape from Bill Weasley and Fleur's wedding. Also used on Xenophilius Lovegood by Hermione after destroying his house in Deathly Hallows.
Suggested Etymology: Latin oblivium meaning \"forgetfulness\".

Obscuro

Pronunciation: ob-SK(Y)OOR-oh (IPA: /ɔb.ˈsk(j)u.ɹəʊ/)
Description: Causes a blindfold to appear over the victim's eyes, obstructing their view of their surroundings.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione in Deathly Hallows to obstruct the portrait of Phineas Nigellus Black' view of their location.
Suggested Etymology: Latin obscuro meaning \"to hide or conceal\".

Oculus Reparo

Pronunciation: oC-YOU-Lus Ree-Pair-Oh
Description: Repairs items to do with eyes. for example Glasses.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione in the Philosopher's stone to repair Harry's broken Glasses.
Suggested Etymology: Oculus Latin Meaning eye Reparo Latin Meaning to restore or fix

Oppugno

Pronunciation: oh-PUG-noh (IPA: /ə.ˈpʊg.no/
Description: Causes conjured objects to attack.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione in Half-Blood Prince to attack Ron with a conjured flock of canaries (see Avis).
Suggested Etymology: Latin oppugno meaning \"to attack\".

Orchideous

Pronunciation: or-KID-ee-us (IPA: /o˞.ˈkɪ.di.əs/
Description: Makes a bouquet of flowers appear out of the caster's wand.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in Goblet of Fire by Ollivander to test Fleur's wand.
Suggested Etymology: English orchid meaning \"a plant of a large family with complex showy flowers\".

P

Pack

Pronunciation: As in English: pæk
Description: Packs a trunk, or perhaps any luggage.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in Prisoner of Azkaban by Lupin in his office, and in Order of the Phoenix by Tonks, once verbally and again non-verbally.

(Permanent Sticking Charm)

Description: Makes objects permanently stay in place.
Seen/Mentioned: First mentioned in Order of the Phoenix, Sirius suspects that his mother's painting was fixed to the wall with such a Charm. In Deathly Hallows, Harry discovers that it was used by Sirius to permanently affix his pictures to the wall in his room.

Petrificus Totalus (Body-Bind Curse)

Pronunciation: pe-TRI-fi-cus to-TAH-lus (
Description: Used to temporarily bind the victim's body in a position much like that of a soldier at attention; this spell does not restrict breathing or seeing, and the victim will usually fall to the ground.
Seen/Mentioned: First used in Philosopher's Stone by Hermione, who was trying to prevent Neville from stopping her, Ron, and Harry from leaving the common room to hunt for the Philosopher's Stone. It is then used throughout the rest of the series, especially during the Battle of the Department of Mysteries in Order of the Phoenix. Seen in Half-Blood Prince as Dumbledore casts the spell to make Harry freeze so he doesn't give himself away. The spell was broken when Dumbledore was killed.
Suggested Etymology: English petrify meaning \"to turn to stone\" and English total meaning complete.
Notes: The eyes of the target remain mobile, as seen in the Philosopher's Stone, and in the Deathly Hollows.

Peskipiksi Pesternomi

Pronunciation: PES-key PIX-ee PES-ter NO-mee
Description: The one time it was uttered, it had absolutely no effect.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Lockhart to attempt to remove Cornish pixies.
Suggested Etymology: English pesky meaning \"annoying\", English pixie meaning \"a supernatural being\", English pester meaning \"to annoy\", English no for negative and English me for the first person pronoun.
Notes: It is not known if the spell works or not.

Piertotum Locomotor

Pronunciation: pee-ayr-TOH-tum (or peer-TOH-tum) loh-koh-MOH-tor (pɪɛ˞.ˈtoʊ.təm (or pɪə.ˈtoʊ.təm) lo.ko.ˈmoʊ.tɚ])
Description: Spell used to animate statues and suits of armour to do the caster's bidding.
Seen/Mentioned: In Deathly Hallows, McGonagall uses this spell to animate the suits of armour and statues within Hogwarts to defend the castle.
Suggested Etymology: Latin petrus, same etymology of Italian name \"Pietro\" (English \"Peter\"), meaning \"stone\", Latin totus meaning \"whole of\", Latin loco meaning \"to place\", and Latin moto meaning \"to move about\".

(Placement Charm)

Description: A charm which temporarily places an object upon a desired target.
Seen/Mentioned: Mentioned in Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them.

Point Me (Four-Point Spell)

Pronunciation: As in English ()
Description: Causes the caster's wand tip to point to the north cardinal point, acting like a compass.
Seen/Mentioned: By Harry during the third task of the Triwizard Tournament in Goblet of Fire.

Portus

Pronunciation: POR-tus ('pɔɹ.tɪs)
Description: Turns an object into a portkey the object glows an odd blue colour to show being transformed into a portkey, then goes solid again.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Dumbledore in Order of the Phoenix.
Suggested Etymology: Latin portus meaning \"a port\".
Notes: Portkeys were first seen in Goblet of Fire as a means for Harry, Hermione, and the Weasleys to go to the Quidditch World Cup. However, the spell used in its creation was not seen until Order of the Phoenix when Dumbledore creates a Portkey to get Harry Potter and Fred, George, Ron, and Ginny Weasley to Grimmauld place.

Prior Incantato

Pronunciation: pri-OR in-can-TAH-toh
Description: Causes the echo (a shadow or image) of the last spell cast by a wand to emanate from it.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Amos Diggory in Goblet of Fire to discover the last spell cast by Harry's wand after it was found in the hands of Winky, a house-elf. Mentioned in Deathly Hallows as a means of discovering that Harry had been casting spells with Hermione's wand (implying that his own was broken).
Suggested Etymology: Latin prior meaning \"former\" and Latin incanto meaning \"to enchant\".

(Protean Charm)

Description: Causes copies of an object to be remotely affected by changes made to the original.
Seen/Mentioned: First used in Order of the Phoenix. Hermione put the charm on a number of fake Galleons. Instead of the serial number around the edge of the coin, the time and date of the next meeting of Dumbledore's Army appeared. Said to be a spell at NEWT level.
Suggested Etymology: English protean meaning \"able to change or adapt\".

Protego (Shield Charm)

Pronunciation: pro-TAY-goh (pɹəʊ.'teɪ.gəʊ)
Description: The Shield Charm causes minor to moderate jinxes, curses, and hexes to rebound upon the attacker. It can also cause a shield to erupt from the caster's wand.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in Goblet of Fire, in which Harry is taught this spell by Hermione in preparation for the third task in the Triwizard Tournament. Also used throughout the series. Examples are in Order of the Phoenix when Harry is duelling the Death Eaters. Harry later uses it in ‘Deathly Hallows to separate Ron and Hermione when they are fighting.
Suggested Etymology: Latin protego meaning \"to protect\".
Notes: With enough power it can knock back anyone standing near it.

Protego Horribilis

Pronunciation: pro-TAY-goh horr-uh-BIL-lis ()
Description: Provides some form of protection against Dark Magic.
Seen/Mentioned: Cast by Flitwick in an attempt to strengthen the castle's defences in Deathly Hallows
Suggested Etymology: Latin protego meaning \"to protect\", Latin horribilis meaning \"horrible\".

Protego Totalum

Pronunciation: pro-TAY-goh toh-TAH-lum ()
Description: Provides protection of some form for an area or dwelling.
Seen/Mentioned: In Deathly Hallows, this is one of the spells used by Hermione and Harry to protect their camp site from unwanted visitors.
Suggested Etymology: Latin protego meaning \\"to protect\\" and Latin totus meaning \\"as a whole\\".

Q

Quietus

Pronunciation: KWY-uh-tus ('kwi.eɪ.tɪs)
Description: Makes a magically magnified voice return to normal.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in Goblet of Fire by Ludo Bagman.
Suggested Etymology: Latin quietus meaning \\"undisturbed, calm\\".
Notes: Functions as the counter spell to Sonorus.

R

Reducio

Pronunciation: re-DOO-see-oh (ɹɛ.'du.si.ˌəʊ)
Description: Makes an enlarged object smaller. Counter-charm to Engorgio.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in Goblet of Fire by Barty Crouch Jr (as Mad Eye Moody) to shrink the spider he used to demonstrate the Cruciatus Curse.
Suggested Etymology: Latin reductio meaning \\"to bring back\\".

Reducto (Reductor Curse)

Pronunciation: re-DUK-toh (ɹɛ.'dʌk.təʊ)
Description: Enables the caster to blast solid objects away.
Seen/Mentioned: In Goblet of Fire, Harry uses it on one of the hedges of the Triwizard maze and ends up burning a small hole in it; in Order of the Phoenix, Gryffindors in Harry's year reference Parvati Patil as being able to reduce a table full of dark detectors to ashes; in Half Blood Prince, a member of the Order of the Phoenix attempts to use this spell to break down a door which Death Eaters have blocked when the Death Eaters have cornered Dumbledore in the Lightning Struck Tower.
Suggested Etymology: Latin reductio meaning \\"to restore\\".

(Refilling Charm)

Description: Refills whatever the caster points at with the drink originally in the container.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in Half-Blood Prince, when Harry notices that Hagrid and Slughorn are running out of mead.

Relashio

Pronunciation: reh-LASH-ee-oh (ɹɛ.'læ.ʃi.ˌəʊ)
Description: A charm used to force someone or something to release that which it holds or grapples by means of shooting fiery sparks out or, underwater, shooting hot bursts of water.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Harry against Grindylows in the second task of the Triwizard Tournament. When used more expertly by Bob Ogden in Half-Blood Prince, it threw Marvolo Gaunt backwards after an attempted attack. Hermione uses it in Deathly Hallows to free Mrs Cattermole from the chained chair.
Suggested Etymology: Italian rilasciare meaning \\"to release\\".

Rennervate

Pronunciation: ree-NUR-vayt (ɹi.nɚɹ'.veɪt)
Description: Brings someone out of unconsciousness.
Seen/Mentioned: In Goblet of Fire, Amos Diggory uses it to wake up Winky and Dumbledore uses it to wake up Krum and Barty Crouch Jr. In "Half-Blood Prince", Harry later uses it to try to reawaken a cursed Dumbledore in the seaside cave.
Suggested Etymology: Officially renamed from Ennervate by J. K. Rowling from the prefix "re-" would come from Latin re-, "again" and "en-" Old French from "in-" L. cause to be + "nerves" Eng. c.1603 strength, from "nervus" L. nerve
Notes: Counter spell to Stupefy; when this spell is cast, red light is emitted.

Reparo

Pronunciation: reh-PAH-roh (ɹɛ.'pa.ɹəʊ)
Description: Used to repair broken or damaged objects.
Seen/Mentioned: Many times throughout the books. Shattered objects are often described as having "flown" back together. However, substances contained within broken objects are not restored.
Suggested Etymology: Latin reparo meaning "to renew" or "repair".

Repello Muggletum (Muggle-Repelling Charm)

Pronunciation: reh-PELL-loh MUG-ul-tum or MUG-gleh-tum or mugg-GLEE-tum (IPA: or /ˈmʊ.ɡlə.tʌm/ or /mʊ.ˈɡli.tʌm/)
Description: Keeps Muggles away from wizarding places by causing them to remember important meetings they missed and to cause the Muggles in question to forget what they were doing in the first place.
Seen/Mentioned: Mentioned in Quidditch Through the Ages as being used to keep Muggles away from the Quidditch World Cup. Hogwarts was also said to be guarded by the Muggle-Repelling Charm. Harry and Hermione also use it on numerous occasions, among many other spells, to protect and hide their campsite in Deathly Hallows.
Suggested Etymology: Latin repello meaning "to drive away".

Rictusempra (Tickling Charm)

Pronunciation: ric-tuh-SEM-pra
Description: The subject experiences the sensation of being tickled after being thrown into the air.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen used by Harry on Draco in Chamber of Secrets, when they fought in the Duelling Club.
Suggested Etymology: Latin rictus meaning "open mouth", and Latin semper meaning "always".
Notes: This spell takes the form of a jet of silver light.

Riddikulus

Pronunciation: rih-DIH-ku-lus
Description: A spell used when fighting a Boggart, "Riddikulus" forces the Boggart to take the appearance of an object upon which the caster is concentrating. When used correctly this will be a humorous form.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in Prisoner of Azkaban, when taught by Lupin. Then seen in Goblet of Fire on a boggart that was in the maze in the Third Task. Finally seen in Order of the Phoenix, when Mrs Weasley tries to cast Riddikulus on a Boggart in Grimmauld Place.
Suggested Etymology: Latin ridiculus meaning "absurd".
Notes: The effect depends on what the caster is thinking. Neville concentrates on his grandmother's dress, causing a Boggart in the form of Snape to appear in it.

S

Salvio Hexia

Pronunciation: SAL-vee-oh HECKS-ee-ah
Description: Provides some form of protection against hexes.
Seen/Mentioned: Harry and Hermione cast this spell to strengthen their campsite's defences against intruders in Deathly Hallows.
Suggested Etymology: Latin salvus meaning "safe" and English hex meaning "a magic spell".

Scourgify (Scouring Charm)

Pronunciation: SKUR-jih-fy'
Description: Used to clean something.
Seen/Mentioned: First used by Tonks to clean Hedwig's cage in Order of the Phoenix. Later, Ginny performs the spell to clean up Stinksap in the Hogwarts Express. While looking at Snape's memories, Harry sees his father use the spell on Snape's mouth.
Suggested Etymology: English scour meaning "to clean by vigorous rubbing".

Sectumsempra

Pronunciation: sec-tum-SEMP-rah [ˌsɛktəm'sɛmpɹa]
Description: Wounds the target; described as being as though the subject had been "slashed by a sword". Created by Severus Snape.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in Order of the Phoenix when Snape uses it in his memory against James Potter, but misses and only lightly cuts his cheek. Used by Harry in Half-Blood Prince against Draco, and then later against the Inferi in Voldemort's Horcrux chamber, and Snape during his flight from Hogwarts. In the opening chapters of Deathly Hallows, Snape accidentally casts this curse against George Weasley in the Order's flight from Privet Drive, though George was not his intended target. It is known as a specialty of Snape's.
Suggested Etymology: Latin sectura meaning "cutting" and Latin semper meaning "always".
Notes: Though Snape was able to mend the wounds inflicted on Draco by this curse with ease, with "an incantation that sounded almost like song", Mrs Weasley was unable to heal her son George, when his ear was severed by the curse. It was discovered in an old copy of Advanced Potion Making by Harry; Sectumsempra was invented by Snape with the words "For enemies" written next to it.

Serpensortia

Pronunciation: ser-pen-SOR-chah [ˌsɛɹpən'sɒɹtʃa]
Description: Conjures a serpent from the spell caster’s wand.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Draco while duelling Harry in Chamber of Secrets and Voldemort in the duel against Dumbledore.
Suggested Etymology: Latin serpens meaning "a snake" and Latin ortis meaning "source".

Silencio (Silencing Charm)

Pronunciation: sih-LEN-see-oh [si'lɛnsiˌo]
Description: Silences something immediately
Seen/Mentioned: First used by Hermione in Order of the Phoenix to silence a frog and a raven in Charms class, then later to silence a Death Eater who was trying to shout for help. It was also used by Voldemort in Deathly Hallows during the Battle of Hogwarts.
Suggested Etymology: Italian silenzio or Spanish silencio meaning "silence".

(Slug-Vomiting Charm)

Description: A jet of green light strikes the victim, who then vomits slugs for ten minutes. The sizes of the vomited slugs decrease with time.
Seen/Mentioned: In Chamber of Secrets, Ron attempts to use it on Draco; the spell backfired and hit him instead. Mentioned in Order of the Phoenix before Gryffindor's first Quidditch Match against Slytherin when Draco taunts Ron, "Harry was reminded forcibly of the time that Ron had accidentally put a Slug-Vomiting Charm on himself".

Sonorus

Pronunciation: soh-NOh-rus[so'noɹəs]
Description: Magnifies the spell caster’s voice, functioning as a magical megaphone
Seen/Mentioned: By Ludo Bagman and Cornelius Fudge in Goblet of Fire to commentate at the Quidditch World Cup. Also used by Dumbledore to silence everyone in the Great Hall in Goblet of Fire. Used by Voldemort several times during the Battle of Hogwarts in Deathly Hallows.
Suggested Etymology: Latin sonorus meaning "loud".
Notes: The counter-spell is Quietus.

Specialis Revelio (Scarpin's Revelaspell)

Pronunciation: speh-see-AHLIS reh-VEL-ee-oh
Description: Causes an object to show its hidden secrets or magical properties.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione to find out more of Harry's Advanced Potion-Making book in Half-Blood Prince. Used by Ernie Macmillan to find out the ingredients of a potion.
Suggested Etymology: Latin specialis meaning "secret" and Latin revelo meaning "to unveil".

(Stealth Sensoring Spell)

Description: Detects those under magical disguise.
Seen/Mentioned: In Order of the Phoenix, Umbridge casts this around her office. Also used at the entrance to the Ministry of Magic.

(Stinging Hex, Stinging Jinx)

Description: Produces a stinging sensation in the victim, resulting in angry red welts and occasionally the severe inflammation of the affected area.
Seen/Mentioned: Harry inadvertently casts one on Snape during Occlumency lessons in Order of the Phoenix. Hermione casts the Stinging Hex on Harry in Deathly Hallows to purposefully distort Harry's appearance.

Stupefy (Stunning Spell, Stupefying Charm, Stunner)

Pronunciation: ST(Y)OO-puh-fye
Description: Puts the victim in an unconscious state. Manifests as a Jet of red light.
Seen/Mentioned: Throughout the series; particularly by a number of Ministry officials against McGonagall in Order of the Phoenix. It is also taught by Harry in his D.A. meetings and used extensively during the Battle of the Department of Mysteries against the Death Eaters. Is seen by some, including Harry himself, as the basic spell for fighting. Death Eaters, Ministry Officials, Order members and students all seem to refer to this spell as their preferred attack.
Suggested Etymology: Latin stupefacio meaning "to make senseless".
Notes: Hagrid was able to withstand multiple direct Stunners due to being half-giant, and Goblet of Fire shows six to seven wizards being needed, working in unison, to Stun a single dragon.

(Supersensory Charm)

Description: Able to possess superior senses than before.
Seen/Mentioned: Mentioned by Ron outside of the Hogwarts Express during the epilogue of Deathly Hallows as a potential substitute for using mirrors while driving a Muggle automobile.

(Switching Spell)

Description: Causes two objects to be switched for one another.
Seen/Mentioned: Harry contemplates using this spell against his dragon in the first task of the Triwizard Tournament. Neville also uses this in Transfiguration class in Goblet of Fire, and accidentally transplants his ears onto a cactus.

T

(Taboo)

Description: A jinx which may be placed upon a word or a name, so that whenever that word is spoken, a magical disturbance is created which alerts the caster of the Taboo to the location of the speaker. Any protective enchantments in effect around the speaker are broken when the Tabooed word is spoken aloud.
Seen/Mentioned: In Deathly Hallows, this spell is placed on the word "Voldemort"; Harry, Ron and Hermione are tracked this way to Tottenham Court Road. Ron tells the other two to stop using the word as he began to fear the name might be a jinx, later discovering it to be a Taboo. Later in the book, Harry accidentally says Voldemort's name again, resulting in the trio being caught by Death Eaters and taken to Malfoy Manor.

Tarantallegra

Pronunciation: ta-RON-tuh-LEG-rah
Description: Makes victim's legs dance uncontrollably, so the victim cannot control his or her movements (recalling the tarantella dance).
Seen/Mentioned: First used by Draco on Harry in the Duelling Club in Chamber of Secrets. In Order of the Phoenix, a counter jinx is mentioned it is Finite. It is notably used against Neville in the Department of Mysteries, causing the prophecy to be broken.
Suggested Etymology: English tarantella meaning "a rapid whirling dance" and Italian allegra meaning "joyful".

Tergeo

Pronunciation: TUR-jee-oh ('tɝ.dʒi.əʊ)
Description: Siphons material from a surface, e.g. blood, ink, dust, etc.
Seen/Mentioned: Hermione uses this spell in Half-Blood Prince to remove blood from Harry's face, as well as to remove ink from an essay that Ron had completed previously. It was used in Deathly Hallows to clean off a handkerchief by Ron, and to dust off a picture of Gellert Grindelwald in Bathilda Bagshot's house.
Suggested Etymology: Latin tergeo meaning "to wipe, scour, clean".

(Tongue-Tying Curse)

Description: A curse which prevents certain information from being revealed by the individual upon whom the spell is placed. The curse manifests itself by causing the tongue to temporarily curl backwards upon itself.
Seen/Mentioned: First mentioned as one of the spells in Curses and Counter-Curses. Seen in Deathly Hallows as a deterrent to Snape, or any other unwanted visitor of Number 12 Grimmauld Place, from betraying their location to anyone else.

(Trip Jinx)

Description: Causes the victim of the jinx to trip and fall.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Draco in Order of the Phoenix, to catch Harry when he was fleeing after Dumbledore's Army was discovered.

U

(Unbreakable Vow)

Description: Causes a vow taken by a witch or wizard to be inviolable; if they should break it, the consequence is death.
Seen/Mentioned: Snape takes an Unbreakable Vow with Narcissa Malfoy at the beginning of Half-Blood Prince, vowing to help Narcissa's son Draco with a task given to him by Voldemort, and to finish the task should Draco prove incapable. Fred and George attempted to force an Unbreakable Vow upon Ron as children. According to Ron, it causes death when the vow is broken.

(Undetectable Extension Charm)

Description: Causes a container's capacity to be increased, without changing the object's external appearance.
Seen/Mentioned: This spell is used by Mr Weasley to allow eight people, six large trunks, two owls, and a rat to fit comfortably inside his modified Ford Anglia in Chamber of Secrets. Hermione casts this spell upon her small beaded handbag in Deathly Hallows.

(Unbreakable Charm)

Description: Causes an object to become unbreakable.
Seen/Mentioned: Hermione uses this spell in Goblet of Fire on a glass jar containing Rita Skeeter in her animagus form (a beetle) so as to make sure she could not return to human form.

V

W

Waddiwasi

Pronunciation: wah-dee-WAH-see
Description: Appears to launch small objects through the air.
Seen/Mentioned: Used only once in the series, by Lupin in Prisoner of Azkaban to expel a wad of chewing gum from the key hole Peeves put it in, launching it up Peeves' nose.
Suggested Etymology: English wad meaning "a lump of soft material" and Latin vado meaning, "to go".
Note: This may have been an improvised charm because the word "wad" is in the spell, with the spell acting on a wad of gum.

Wingardium Leviosa (Levitation Charm)

Pronunciation: win-GAR-dee-um lev-ee-OH-sa (
Description: Levitates objects.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in Philosopher's Stone, when Flitwick's first-year class practice the spell on feathers. Later in that book, Ron performs the spell on the club of a mountain troll. In Order of the Phoenix, this is the answer to the first question on Harry's Charms OWL. The spell is also used in Deathly Hallows by Harry to levitate the sidecar of a flying motorbike, and by Ron to levitate a branch, to prod the knot which freezes the Whomping Willow. However, it is shown during the same attempt to levitate the sidecar that the spell can deteriorate.
Suggested Etymology: English wing meaning "fly", Latin arduus meaning "high", and Latin levis meaning "light".

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