In chemistry, hydrochlorides
resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid
with an organic base
). This is also known as muriate
, derived from hydrochloric acid's other name: muriatic acid.
For example, reaction of pyridine (C5H5N) with hydrochloric acid (HCl) yields pyridine hydrochloride (C5H5N·HCl). Even though this style of formulas is often used for denoting the hydrochlorides, the dot incorrectly implies that the two molecules are weakly bonded together. It is the salt C5H5NH+ Cl- with correct chemical name pyridinium chloride.
Converting insoluble amines into hydrochlorides is a common way to make them water- and acid-soluble
. This is particularly desirable for substances used in medications. Many pharmaceutical
substances are prepared as hydrochlorides so that they may be quickly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract; the body usually absorbs a hydrochloride within 15 - 30 minutes.
Examples of hydrochlorides in medical uses are many, ranging from over-the-counter sinus relief to antidepressants.