Maura y Montaner, Antonio

Maura y Montaner, Antonio

Maura y Montaner, Antonio, 1853-1925, Spanish politician. He entered the Cortes in 1881 as a liberal but later joined the Conservative party. As premier (1903-4, 1907-9), he attempted to carry through an ambitious but reactionary program for reform (a "revolution from above"), but he was fiercely opposed by the liberals. He fell from power after the brutal suppression of an uprising in Barcelona in 1909 (caused by the call-up of Catalan troops to fight in Morocco). His great abilities and authoritarian personality made him the hero of a semi-Fascistic youth movement. But when he later (1918, 1919, 1921-22) headed coalition cabinets, he did nothing to advance non-democratic solutions. Although many of his followers joined the Primo de Riveira dictatorship, he personally isolated himself from it.
The following is the list of those who have served as President of the Government (i.e., the Prime Minister) of Spain. It also includes similar offices presiding over the Council of Ministries since the position gained a significant power.

Secretarios del Despacho Universal (1705-1734)

Kingdom of Spain (1705-1734)

Name Notes From Until Head of State
Pedro Fernández del Campo y Angulo, marquis of Mejorada July 11, 1705 April 15, 1714 King Philip V
Manuel de Vadillo y Velasco April 15, 1714 November 30, 1714
José de Grimaldo y Gutiérrez de Solorzano, marquis of Grimaldo 1st time November 30, 1714 January 14, 1724
Juan Bautista Orendayn y Azpilcueta 1st time January 14, 1724 September 4, 1724 King Louis I
José de Grimaldo y Gutiérrez de Solorzano, marquis of Grimaldo 2nd time September 4, 1724 December 12, 1725 King Philip V
Juan Guillermo Ripperda, baron of Ripperda December 12, 1725 April 14, 1726
José de Grimaldo y Gutiérrez de Solorzano, marquis of Grimaldo 3rd time April 14, 1726 October 1, 1726
Juan Bautista Orendayn y Azpilcueta, marquis of La Paz 2nd time October 1, 1726 November 21, 1734

First Secretaries of State (1734-1834)

Kingdom of Spain (1734-1834)

Name Notes From Until Head of State
José de Patiño y Rosales November 21, 1734 November 26, 1734 King Philip V
Sebastián de la Cuadra y Llerena, marquis of Villarias November 26, 1734 December 4, 1746
José de Carvajal y Lancaster December 4, 1746 April 9, 1754 King Ferdinand VI
Fernando de Silva y Álvarez de Toledo, duke of Hueścar April 9, 1754 May 15, 1754
Ricardo Wall y Devreux May 15, 1754
October 9, 1763 King Charles III
Pablo Jerónimo de Grimaldi y Pallavicini, marquis of Grimaldi October 9, 1763 February 19, 1777
José Moñino y Redondo, count of Floridablanca February 19, 1777
February 28, 1792 King Charles IV
Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea y Ximénez de Urrea, count of Aranda Acting February 28, 1792 November 15, 1792
Manuel de Godoy y Álvarez de Faria, duke of Alcudia November 15, 1792 March 30, 1798
Francisco de Saavedra y Sangronis Acting until Sep 6 March 30, 1798 February 21, 1799
Mariano Luis de Urquijo y Muga Acting February 12, 1799 December 13, 1799
Pedro Cevallos Guerra 1st time December 13, 1799 March 3, 1808
Gonzalo O'Farrill y Herrera Acting March 3, 1808 March 19, 1808
Pedro Cevallos Guerra 2nd time March 19, 1808 July 7, 1808 King Ferdinand VII
Mariano Luis de Urquijo y Muga 2nd time July 7, 1808 June 27, 1813 King Joseph I
Juan O'Donoju O'Ryan Acting October 10, 1813 October 17, 1813
Fernando de Laserna Acting October 17, 1813 December 3, 1813
José Luyando Acting December 3, 1813 May 4, 1814 King Ferdinand VII
José Miguel de Carvajal Vargas y Manrique, duke of San Carlos May 4, 1814 November 15, 1814
Pedro Cevallos Guerra 3rd time November 15, 1814 January 24, 1816
Juan Esteban Lozano de Torres January 24, 1816 January 26, 1816
Pedro Cevallos Guerra 4th time January 26, 1816 October 30, 1816
José García de León y Pizarro October 30, 1816 September 14, 1818
Carlos Martínez de Irujo y Tacón, marquis of Casa Irujo Acting September 14, 1818 June 12, 1819
Manuel González Salmón y Gómez de Torres Acting June 12, 1819 September 12, 1819
Joaquín José Melgarejo y Saurín, duke of San Fernando de Quiroga September 12, 1819 March 18, 1820
Juan Jabat Aztal Acting March 18, 1820
Evaristo Pérez de Castro Brito March 18, 1820 March 2, 1821
Joaquín Anduaga Cuenca Acting March 2, 1821 April 23, 1821
Francisco de Paula Escudero Acting April 23, 1821
Eusebio Bardají y Azara April 23, 1821 January 8, 1822
Ramón López Pelegrín Acting January 8, 1822 January 24, 1822
José Gabriel de Silva y Bazán, marquis of Santa Cruz January 24, 1822 January 30, 1822
Ramón López Pelegrín Acting January 30, 1822 February 28, 1822
Francisco Martínez de la Rosa February 28, 1822 August 5, 1822
Evaristo Fernández San Miguel y Valledor Acting from Feb 28 August 5, 1822 April 25, 1823
José Manuel Vadillo Acting April 25, 1823 May 7, 1823
Santiago Usoz y Mozi Acting May 7, 1823 May 13, 1823
José María Pando de la Riva y Ramírez de Laredo May 13, 1823 August 29, 1823
Luis María de Salazar y Salazar Acting August 29, 1823 September 4, 1823
Juan Antonio Yandiola Garay Acting September 4, 1823 September 6, 1823
José Luyando 2nd time September 6, 1823 October 1, 1823
Víctor Damián Sáez y Sánchez-Mayor Acting until Aug 7
Counter-government until Oct 1
April 25, 1823 December 2, 1823
Carlos Martínez de Irujo y Tacón, marquis of Casa Irujo 2nd Time December 2, 1823 January 18, 1824
Narciso de Heredia y Begines de los Ríos, conde de Ofalia January 18, 1824 July 11, 1824
Luis María de Salazar y Salazar Acting July 11, 1824
Francisco Cea Bermúdez 1st time July 11, 1824 October 24, 1825
Pedro Alcántara de Toledo y Salm-Salm, duque del Infantado October 24, 1825 August 19, 1826
Manuel González Salmón y Gómez de Torres Acting until October 15, 1830 August 19, 1826 January 20, 1832
Francisco Tadeo Calomarde y Arria Acting January 20, 1832 February 22, 1832
Antonio de Saavedra y Frígola, conde de Alcudia Acting February 22, 1832 October 1, 1832
José Cafranga Costilla Acting October 1, 1832 November 29, 1832
Francisco Cea Bermúdez 2nd time November 29, 1832 January 15, 1834

Prime Ministers (Presidents of the Council of Ministers, 1834-Present)

Kingdom of Spain (1834-1873)

Picture Name From Until Political Party Head of State
Francisco Martínez de la Rosa January 15, 1834 June 7, 1835 Moderate Royalist Regent Queen Dowager Maria Christina on behalf of Queen Isabella II
José María Queipo de Llano Ruiz de Saravia
Count of Toreno
June 7, 1835 September 14, 1835
Miguel Ricardo de Álava Esquivel
Rejected his nomination, staying as the Spanish ambassador in London
September 14, 1835 September 25, 1835 Progressive
Juan Álvarez Mendizabal September 25, 1835 May 15, 1836
Francisco Javier Isturiz y Montero
Acting, 1st time
May 15, 1836 August 14, 1836 Moderate
José María Calatrava
Acting
August 14, 1836 August 18, 1837 Progressive
Baldomero Espartero
Count of Luchana
1st time
August 18, 1837 October 18, 1837
Eusebio Bardají y Azara October 18, 1837 December 16, 1837
Narciso de Heredia y Begines de los Ríos
Count of Ofalia
December 16, 1837 September 6, 1838
Bernardino Fernández de Velasco
Duke of Frías
September 6, 1838 December 9, 1838
Isidro Alaix
Acting
December 9, 1838
Evaristo Pérez de Castro Brito December 9, 1838 July 18, 1840 Moderate
Antonio González y González
1st time
July 20, 1840 August 12, 1840 Progressive
Valentín Ferraz y Barrau August 12, 1840 August 28, 1840
Modesto Cortázar
Acting
August 29, 1840 September 11, 1840 Moderate
Vicente Sancho September 11, 1840 September 16, 1840
Baldomero Espartero
Duke of Victory
2nd time
September 16, 1840 May 10, 1841 Progressive Regent Baldomero Espartero on behalf of Queen Isabella II
Joaquín María Ferrer Cafranga May 10, 1841 May 20, 1841
Antonio González y González
2nd time
May 20, 1841 June 17, 1842
José Ramón Rodil y Campillo
Marquis of Rodil
June 17, 1842 May 9, 1843
Joaquín María López
1st time
May 9, 1843 May 19, 1843
Álvaro Gómez Becerra May 19, 1843 July 23, 1843
Joaquín María López
2nd time
July 23, 1843 November 20, 1843 Queen Isabella II
Salustiano Olózaga November 20, 1843 December 5, 1843
Luis González Bravo
1st time
December 5, 1843 May 3, 1844 Moderate
(Década Moderada)
Ramón María Narváez
Duke of Valencia
1st time
May 3, 1844 February 12, 1846
Manuel Pando Fernández de Pinedo
Marquis of Miraflores
1st time
February 12, 1846 March 16, 1846
Ramón María Narváez
Duke of Valencia
2nd time
March 16, 1846 April 5, 1846
Francisco Javier Isturiz y Montero
2nd time
April 5, 1846 January 28, 1847
Carlos Martínez de Irujo
Marquis of Casa Irujo, Duke of Sotomayor
January 28, 1847 March 28, 1847
Joaquín Francisco Pacheco y Gutiérrez Calderón March 28, 1847 August 31, 1847
José de Salamanca y Mayol August 31, 1847 September 12, 1847
Florencio García Goyena September 12, 1847 October 4, 1847
Ramón María Narváez
Duke of Valencia
3rd time
October 4, 1847 October 19, 1849
Serafín María de Sotto
Count of Clonard
Appointment revoked before he could take possession
October 19, 1849 October 20, 1849
Ramón María Narváez
Duke of Valencia
4th time
October 20, 1849 January 14, 1850
Juan Bravo Murillo January 14, 1850 December 14, 1852
Federico Roncali
Count of Alcoy
December 14, 1852 April 14, 1853
Francisco de Lersundi y Ormaechea April 14, 1853 September 19, 1853
Luis José Sartorius
Count of San Luis
September 19, 1853 July 17, 1854
Fernando Fernández de Córdoba
1st time
July 17, 1854 July 18, 1854
Ángel de Saavedra y Ramírez de Baquedano
Duke of Rivas
July 18, 1854 July 19, 1854 Progressive
Baldomero Espartero
Duke of Victory
3rd time
July 19, 1854 July 14, 1856
Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris
1st time
July 14, 1856 October 12, 1856 Unión Liberal
Ramón María Narváez
Duke of Valencia
5th time
October 12, 1856 October 15, 1857 Moderate
Francisco Armero y Peñaranda
Marquis of Nervión
October 15, 1857 January 14, 1858
Francisco Javier Isturiz y Montero
3rd time
January 14, 1858 June 30, 1858
Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris
2nd time
June 30, 1858 March 2, 1863 Unión Liberal
Manuel Pando Fernández de Pinedo
Marquis of Miraflores
2nd time
March 2, 1863 January 17, 1864 Moderate
Lorenzo Arrazola García January 17, 1864 March 1, 1864
Alejandro Mon Menéndez March 1, 1864 September 16, 1864 Unión Liberal
Ramón María Narváez
Duke of Valencia
6th time
September 16, 1864 June 21, 1865 Moderate
Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris
3rd time
June 21, 1865 July 10, 1866 Unión Liberal
Ramón María Narváez
Duke of Valencia
7th time
July 10, 1866 April 23, 1868 Moderate
Luis González Bravo
2nd time
April 23, 1868 September 19, 1868
José Gutiérrez de la Concha September 19, 1868 September 30, 1868

Spanish Revolution of 1868

Picture Name From Until Political Party Head of State
Pascual Madoz Ibáñez
Acting
September 30, 1868 October 3, 1868 No formal Head of State
Francisco Serrano y Domínguez
Duke of La Torre, Count of San Antonio
1st time
October 3, 1868 June 18, 1869 Liberal Union
General Juan Prim y Prats
Marquis of Los Castillejos, Count of Reus, Viscount of Bruch
June 18, 1869 December 27, 1870 Progressist Liberal
Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo
Acting
December 27, 1870 January 4, 1871 Liberal Union King Amadeo I
Francisco Serrano y Domínguez
Duke of La Torre, Count of San Antonio
2nd time
January 4, 1871 July 24, 1871 Liberal Union
Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla
1st time
July 24, 1871 October 5, 1871 Democratic
José Malcampo y Monge
Marquis of San Rafael, Count of Jolo
October 5, 1871 December 21, 1871
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
1st time
December 12, 1871 May 26, 1872 Progressist Liberal
Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo
Acting
May 26, 1872 June 4, 1872 Liberal Union
Francisco Serrano y Domínguez
Duke of La Torre, Count of San Antonio
3rd time
June 4, 1872 June 13, 1872 Liberal Union
Fernando Fernández de Córdoba
Acting
June 13, 1872 June 16, 1872 Moderate Liberal
Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla
2nd time
June 16, 1872 February 12, 1873 Democratic-Republican

First Spanish Republic (1873-1874) (also named Provisional Government)

Picture Name From Until Political Leaning
Estanislao Figueras y Moragas February 12, 1873 June 11, 1873 Federal republican
Francisco Pi y Margall June 11, 1873 July 18, 1873
Nicolás Salmerón Alonso July 18, 1873 September 7, 1873 Moderate republican
Emilio Castelar y Ripoll September 7, 1873 January 4, 1874 Unitary republican
Francisco Serrano y Domínguez
4th time
January 4, 1874 February 16, 1874 Conservative republican dictatorship
Juan de Zavala y de la Puente February 16, 1874 September 3, 1874
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
2nd time
September 3, 1874 December 30, 1874 Liberal

Kingdom of Spain Restored (1874-1931)

Picture Name From Until Political Party Head of State
Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
1st time
December 31, 1874 September 12, 1875 Conservative King Alfonso XII
Joaquín Jovellar y Soler September 12, 1875 December 2, 1875
Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
2nd time
December 2, 1875 March 7, 1879
Arsenio Martínez Campos March 7, 1879 December 9, 1879
Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
3rd time
December 9, 1879 February 8, 1881
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
3rd time
February 8, 1881 October 13, 1883 Liberal
José Posada Herrera October 13, 1883 January 18, 1884
Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
4th time
January 18, 1884 November 27, 1885 Conservative
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
4th time
November 27, 1885 July 5, 1890 Liberal Regent Queen Dowager Maria Christina
mother of King Alfonso XIII
Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
5th time
July 5, 1890 December 11, 1892 Conservative
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
5th time
December 11, 1892 March 23, 1895 Liberal
Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
6th time
March 23, 1895 August 8, 1897 Conservative
Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero
Acting until August 21,1st time
August 8, 1897 October 4, 1897
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
6th time
October 4, 1897 March 4, 1899 Liberal
Francisco Silvela y de le Vielleuze
1st time
March 4, 1899 October 23, 1900 Conservative
Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero
2nd time
October 23, 1900 March 6, 1901
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
7th time
March 6, 1901 December 6, 1902 Liberal
Francisco Silvela y de le Vielleuze
2nd time
December 6, 1902 July 20, 1903 Conservative King Alfonso XIII
Raimundo Fernández Villaverde
1st time
July 20, 1903 December 5, 1903
Antonio Maura y Montaner
1st time
December 5, 1903 December 16, 1904
Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero
3rd time
December 16, 1904 January 27, 1905
Raimundo Fernández Villaverde
2nd time
January 27, 1905 June 23, 1905
Eugenio Montero Ríos June 23, 1905 December 1, 1905 Liberal
Segismundo Moret y Prendergast
1st time
December 1, 1905 July 6, 1906
José López Domínguez July 6, 1906 November 30, 1906
Segismundo Moret y Prendergast
2nd time
November 30, 1906 December 4, 1906
Antonio González de Aguilar y Correa
Marquis of Vega de Armijo
December 4, 1906 January 25, 1907
Antonio Maura y Montaner
2nd time
January 25, 1907 October 21, 1909 Conservative
Segismundo Moret y Prendergast October 21, 1909 February 9, 1910 Liberal
José Canalejas y Méndez February 9, 1910 November 12, 1912
Manuel García Prieto
Marquis of Alhucemas
Acting, 1st time
November 12, 1912 November 14, 1912
Álvaro Figueroa y Torres Mendieta
Count of Romanones
1st time
November 14, 1912 October 27, 1913
Eduardo Dato e Iradier
1st time
October 27, 1913 December 9, 1915 Conservative
Álvaro Figueroa y Torres Mendieta
Count of Romanones
2nd time
December 9, 1915 April 19, 1917 Liberal
Manuel García Prieto
Marquis of Alhucemas
2nd time
April 19, 1917 June 11, 1917 Liberal-Democratic
Eduardo Dato e Iradier
2nd time
June 11, 1917 November 3, 1917 Conservative
Manuel García Prieto
Marquis of Alhucemas
3rd time
November 3, 1917 March 22, 1918 Liberal-Democratic
(Concentration government)
Antonio Maura y Montaner
3rd time
March 22, 1918 November 9, 1918 Conservative
(Concentration government)
Manuel García Prieto
Marquis of Alhucemas
3rd time
November 9, 1918 December 5, 1918 Liberal-Democratic
Álvaro Figueroa y Torres Mendieta
Count of Romanones
3rd time
December 5, 1918 April 15, 1919 Liberal
Antonio Maura y Montaner
4th time
April 15, 1919 July 20, 1919 Conservative
(Concentration government)
Joaquín Sánchez de Toca Calvo July 20, 1919 December 12, 1919 Conservative
Manuel Allendesalazar
1st time
December 12, 1919 May 5, 1920
Eduardo Dato e Iradier
3rd time
May 5, 1920 March 8, 1921
Gabino Bugallal Araujo
Count of Bugallal
Acting
March 8, 1921 March 13, 1921
Manuel Allendesalazar
2nd time
March 13, 1921 August 14, 1921
Antonio Maura y Montaner
5th time
August 14, 1921 March 8, 1922 Conservative
(Concentration government)
José Sánchez Guerra y Martínez March 8, 1922 December 7, 1922 Conservative
Manuel García Prieto
Marquis of Alhucemas
5th time
December 7, 1922 September 15, 1923 Liberal-Democratic
General Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja
Army Captain General, Marquis of Estella and Ajdir
Head of the Military Directory until December 3, 1925
September 15, 1923 January 30, 1930 Military Dictatorship
Dámaso Berenguer
Count of Xauén, Army General
January 30, 1930 February 18, 1931 Military "Dictablanda"
Juan Bautista Aznar-Cabañas
Navy Admiral
February 18, 1931 April 14, 1931

Second Spanish Republic (1931-1939)

Picture Name From Until Political Party Head of State
Niceto Alcalá-Zamora April 14, 1931 October 14, 1931 PRC
Provisional Government
No formal Head of State
Manuel Azaña Díaz
1st time
October 14, 1931 September 12, 1933 AC President Niceto Alcalá-Zamora
Alejandro Lerroux García
1st time
September 12, 1933 October 8, 1933 PRR
Diego Martínez Barrio October 8, 1933 December 16, 1933 PRR
Alejandro Lerroux García
2nd time
December 16, 1933 April 28, 1934 PRR
Ricardo Samper e Ibáñez April 28, 1934 October 4, 1934 PRR
Alejandro Lerroux García
3rd time
October 4, 1934 September 25, 1935 PRR
Joaquín Chapaprieta Torregrosa September 25, 1935 December 14, 1935 Independent
Manuel Portela Valladares December 14, 1935 February 19, 1936 Independent
Manuel Azaña Díaz
2nd time
February 19, 1936 May 10, 1936 Popular Front, IR
Augusto Barcía Trelles
Acting
May 10, 1936 May 13, 1936 Popular Front, IR President Manuel Azaña
Santiago Casares Quiroga May 13, 1936 July 19, 1936 Popular Front, IR
Diego Martínez Barrio
Acting
July 19, 1936 Popular Front, UR
José Giral Pereira July 19, 1936 September 4, 1936 Popular Front, IR
Francisco Largo Caballero September 4, 1936 May 17, 1937 Popular Front, PSOE
Juan Negrín López May 17, 1937 March 31, 1939 Popular Front, PSOE

Heads of Government of the Nationalist Zone (Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939) and of the Spanish State (1939-1978)

Picture Name From Until Head of State
Fidel Dávila Arrondo October 3, 1936 June 3, 1937 Collegial by the Junta of Burgos
Francisco Gómez Jordana June 3, 1937 January 30, 1938
Francisco Franco y Bahamonde January 30, 1938 June 8, 1973 Caudillo Generalísimo and Dictator Francisco Franco
Luis Carrero Blanco June 9, 1973 December 20, 1973
Torcuato Fernández-Miranda
Acting
December 20, 1973 December 31, 1974
Carlos Arias Navarro December 31, 1974
July 1, 1976 King Juan Carlos I
Fernando de Santiago y Díaz
Acting
July 1, 1976 July 3, 1976
Adolfo Suárez González July 15, 1976 December 29, 1978
Democratic Constitution enacted

Democratic Spain (1978-Present, Kingdom of Spain restored)

Picture Name From Until Political Party Head of State
Adolfo Suárez González December 29, 1978 January 29, 1981 UCD King Juan Carlos I
Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo y Bustelo
Acting until February 25, 1981
January 29, 1981 December 2, 1982
Felipe González Márquez
4 terms: 1982, 1986, 1989 and 1993
December 2, 1982 May 5, 1996 PSOE
José María Aznar López
2 terms: 1996 and 2000
May 5, 1996 April 17, 2004 PP
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
2 terms: 2004 and 2008
April 17, 2004 Incumbent
Term expires in 2012
PSOE

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