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matrix, in mathematics, a rectangular array of elements (e.g., numbers) considered as a single entity. A matrix is distinguished by the number of rows and columns it contains. The matrixis a 2×3 (read "2 by 3") matrix, because it contains 2 rows and 3 columns. A matrix having the same number of rows as columns is called a square matrix. The matrixis a 2×2 matrix, or square matrix of order 2; a square matrix of order *n* contains *n* rows and *n* columns. Definitions are made for certain operations with matrices; for example, a matrix may be multiplied by a number, and two matrices of the same order may be added or multiplied using an algebra of matrices that has been developed. Matrices find application in such fields as vector analysis and the solution of systems of linear equations by means of electronic computers.

See R. C. Dorfi, *Matrix Algebra* (1969).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia Copyright © 2004.

Licensed from Columbia University Press

Licensed from Columbia University Press

Set of numbers arranged in rows and columns to form a rectangular array. Matrix elements may also be differential operators, vectors, or functions. Matrices have wide applications in engineering, physics, economics, and statistics, as well as in various branches of mathematics. They are usually first encountered in the study of systems of equations represented by matrix equations of the form *math.A**math.x* = *math.B*, which may be solved by finding the inverse of matrix *math.A* or by using an algebraic method based on its determinant.

Learn more about matrix with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.

Matrix usually refers to:

- Matrix (mathematics), a mathematical table;
- The Matrix franchise, a series of films, video games and comic books;
- Toyota Matrix, an automobile produced by Toyota

The term may also refer to:

- Extracellular matrix, any material part of a tissue that is not part of any cell
- Germinal matrix, an embryonic brain tissue
- Matrix (biology), the material between animal or plant cells or the material in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion
- Matrix (chemical analysis), the remainder of the sample of which the analyte forms a part
- Matrix (geology), the fine grains between larger grains in igneous or sedimentary rocks
- Matrix isolation, a continuous solid phase in which particles (precipitates, etc.) are embedded
- Nuclear matrix, an insoluble fraction of the cell nucleus
- Osteon or bone matrix, a form of connective tissue found in bone
- Position-specific scoring matrix, which represents a pattern or motif in biological sequences
- Similarity matrix, which scores the similarity between two data points
- Substitution matrix, which estimates the rate at which each possible residue in a biological sequence changes to each other residue over time

- Matrix (numismatics), an intermediate into which the design of a coin is engraved
- Matrix (printing), a mold for shaping the letters
- Matrix Software License Protection System, a product from TDi GmbH, Germany
- Matrix (sound recording), a disc in the early stages of processing a record for mass production
- Matrix Switch, a crossbar switch connecting multiple inputs to multiple outputs.

- Autobot Matrix of Leadership, an object owned by autobot leaders in the Transformers Universe
- Matrix (Doctor Who), an advanced computer network and a virtual reality environment from the British television series Doctor Who
- Matrix (Doctor Who novel), a Doctor Who novel by Robert Perry and Mike Tucker
- The Matrix (fictional universe), the setting for much of the Matrix franchise;
- Matrix (TV series), an early 1990s Canadian television series
- John Matrix, Arnold Schwarzenegger's character in Commando
- Matrix is the surname of a few characters in the canadian CGI animated TV-show ReBoot.

- The 1997 remix album by the German band Haujobb
- Alfa Matrix, a record label
- M@rix (pronounced Matrix) the 1997 album by the German band P.A.L.
- Matrix (artist), a UK drum and bass producer*
- The Matrix (club), a 1960s music club in San Francisco
- Matrix (club), a large music club which opened in 1996 in Berlin
- Matrix (jazz group), a jazz fusion ensemble founded in the 1970s
- Matrix (music), an element of variations which does not change, especially in folk and popular music
- The Matrix (record production team), a music production team

- Growth-share matrix, a Boston Consulting Group analysis technique for business strategy
- Hyundai Matrix, an automobile produced by Hyundai
- Matrix management, an organizational management style
- Matrix Software, a Japanese video game company founded in 1994.
- Metal matrix composite, a type of composite material
- Nickname of American basketball player Shawn Marion
- Nickname of Italian footballer Marco Materazzi

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Last updated on Wednesday October 08, 2008 at 07:05:15 PDT (GMT -0700)

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.

Last updated on Wednesday October 08, 2008 at 07:05:15 PDT (GMT -0700)

View this article at Wikipedia.org - Edit this article at Wikipedia.org - Donate to the Wikimedia Foundation

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