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Electric contact in transistors and related devices between two different types of material called *math.p*-type and *math.n*-type semiconductors. These materials are pure semiconductor materials, such as silicon, to which impurities have been added. Materials of *math.p*-type contain “holes” (vacancies formerly occupied by electrons) that behave like positively charged particles, whereas *math.n*-type materials contain free electrons. Electric current flows more easily across a *math.p*-*math.n* junction in one direction than in the other. If the positive pole of a battery is connected to the *math.p*-side of the junction, and the negative pole to the *math.n*-side, charge flows across the junction. If the battery is connected in the opposite direction, very little charge can flow. The *math.p*-*math.n* junction forms the basis for computer chips, solar cells, and other electronic devices.

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Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.

MATH-MATIC is the marketing name for the AT-3 compiler. Early programming language for UNIVAC I and UNIVAC II. Intended as an improvement over FORTRAN. Created by a group lead by Charles Katz in 1957.## External links

Sperry Rand released a commercial compiler for its UNIVAC. Developed by Grace Hopper as a refinement of her earlier innovation, the A-0 compiler, the new version was called MATH-MATIC. Earlier work on the A-0 and A-2 compilers led to the development of the first English-language business data processing compiler, B-0 (FLOW-MATIC), also completed in 1957. FLOW-MATIC served as a model on which to build with input from other sources.

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Last updated on Saturday March 22, 2008 at 10:37:02 PDT (GMT -0700)

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.

Last updated on Saturday March 22, 2008 at 10:37:02 PDT (GMT -0700)

View this article at Wikipedia.org - Edit this article at Wikipedia.org - Donate to the Wikimedia Foundation

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