Martina

Martina

[mahr-tee-nuh]
Navratilova, Martina, 1956-, Czech-American tennis player, b. Prague. After holding the Czech singles title (1972-74), she defected (1975) to the United States. Known for her aggressive serve-and-volley style, she won the women's singles at Wimbledon a record nine times (1978-79, 1982-87, 1990) and also won a record 20 titles there overall. She holds four U.S. Open titles (1983, 1984, 1986-87), three Australian Open titles (1981, 1983, 1985), and two French Open titles (1982, 1984). With her partner Pam Shriver, she also dominated women's doubles competitions, winning 110 consecutive matches from 1983 to 1985. In a career spanning more than three decades, Navratilova became the all-time leader, male or female, in singles titles (168); she also holds 178 doubles titles.

See her autobiography, written with G. Vecsey (1985).

(born Oct. 18, 1956, Prague, Czech.) Czech-born U.S. tennis player. She became the undisputed top-seeded player in the world in 1979 after winning the Wimbledon women's singles and doubles. In 1982 she won 90 of 93 matches, and in 1983 she won 86 of 87 matches. By 1992 she had accumulated more championships (158) than any other player, male or female, in tennis history, and she retired from singles play in 1994 with 167 h1s. Over the next two years Navratilova appeared in only a handful of doubles events, and from 1997 to 1999 she did not play. In 2000 she returned to professional play, competing in several doubles events. In 2003 she won the mixed doubles at Wimbledon, tying Billie Jean King for most Wimbledon h1s (20). With the victory, Navratilova, age 46, became the oldest player to win at Wimbledon. After winning the mixed doubles at the U.S. Open in 2006, she retired from competitive play. Her career totals include 59 grand slam h1s: 18 singles, 31 doubles, and 10 mixed doubles.

Learn more about Navratilova, Martina with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 18, 1956, Prague, Czech.) Czech-born U.S. tennis player. She became the undisputed top-seeded player in the world in 1979 after winning the Wimbledon women's singles and doubles. In 1982 she won 90 of 93 matches, and in 1983 she won 86 of 87 matches. By 1992 she had accumulated more championships (158) than any other player, male or female, in tennis history, and she retired from singles play in 1994 with 167 h1s. Over the next two years Navratilova appeared in only a handful of doubles events, and from 1997 to 1999 she did not play. In 2000 she returned to professional play, competing in several doubles events. In 2003 she won the mixed doubles at Wimbledon, tying Billie Jean King for most Wimbledon h1s (20). With the victory, Navratilova, age 46, became the oldest player to win at Wimbledon. After winning the mixed doubles at the U.S. Open in 2006, she retired from competitive play. Her career totals include 59 grand slam h1s: 18 singles, 31 doubles, and 10 mixed doubles.

Learn more about Navratilova, Martina with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Martina (died after 641) was the second Empress consort of Heraclius of the Byzantine Empire.

Family

Martina was a daughter of Maria and a certain Martinus. Her mother was a sister to Heraclius.

Maria and Heraclius were children of Heraclius the Elder and his wife Epiphania. The name of their mother was recorded in the chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor.

Empress

Eudokia, first wife of Heraclius, died on 13 August, 612. According to the Chronographikon syntomon of Ecumenical Patriarch Nikephoros I of Constantinople, the cause of death was epilepsy.

According to Theophanes, Martina married her maternal uncle not long after. Placing the marriage in 613 at the latest. However Nikephoros places the marriage during the wars with the Eurasian Avars which took place in the 620s.

The marriage was considered to fall within the prohibited degree of kinship, according to the rules of Chalcedonian Christianity concerning incest. This particular case of marriage between an uncle and a niece had been declared legal since the time of the Codex Theodosianus. Thus the marriage was not approved by the people of Constantinople and the Church.

Despite his disapproval and attempts to convince Heraclius to repudiate Martina, Patriarch Sergius I of Constantinople performed the ceremony himself and crowned Martina in the Augustaeum after she was proclaimed Augusta by Heraclius. Even the members of the imperial family voiced their objections, with Heraclius' brother (and Martina's uncle) Theodore continually criticising Heraclius because of this relationship.

The Emperor and the Empress were, however, clearly a close couple: Martina accompanied her husband in his most difficult campaigns against the Sassanid Empire. She was also at his side at Antioch when the news was received of the serious defeat by the Arabs at the river Yarmuk in August 636.

They had at least ten children, of whom at least two were handicapped, which was seen as divine punishment for the incestous marriage. Among them was Heraclius II, called Heracleonas, who through his mother’s influence received the title of Augustus on July 4, 638. Il nome martina deriva da marte il pianeta tutto rosso...

Regent

On his deathbed in 641 Heraclius left the empire to both his son from the first marriage, Heraclius Constantine (as Constantine III) and Heraklonas (as Heraclius II), granting them equal rank. Martina was to be honoured as empress and mother of both of them.

Heraclius died on 11 February, 641 of an edema. Nikephoros considered Heraclius' disease a devine punishment for his sinful marriage. Three days later Martina took the initiative in announcing the contents of Heraclius' will in a public ceremony. The authority for such a ceremony typically belonged to the succeeding Emperor, not to the Empress. Martina was attempting to establish her own authority over the two co-emperors.

The ceremony took place in the Hippodrome of Constantinople. Present were members of the Byzantine Senate, other dignitaries and the crowds of Constantinople. Absent were both Constantine and Heraklonas. Martina read the contents of the will and claimed the senior authority in the Empire for herself. However the crowd instead acclaimed the names of the two Emperors and not her own. Thus objecting to her assumption of imperial authority. She was forced to return to the palace in defeat.

Relations of Martina and her step-son were always difficult. When Constantine III died suddenly of tuberculosis only four months later, the common belief was that the Empress poisoned him to leave Heraclonas as sole ruler. Also Martina began immediately to exile the prominent supporters of Constantine and with the help of Patriarch Pyrrhus I of Constantinople, one of her primary advisors, revived the policy of Monotheletism.

Her actions and the rumors of poisoning Constantine III caused the people and the Senate to turn against Martina and her son. The Armenian Valentine Arsacidus (Arshakouni) with the troops from Asia Minor, marched to Chalcedon and a frightened Heracleonas named Constans II, son of late Constantine III, a co-emperor.

This, however, failed to ease the discontent and by the end of the month the Byzantine Senate deposed him. His nose was slit, Martina's tongue cut out and they were exiled to Rhodes. Constans II became sole emperor.

Children

Martina and Heraclius had at least 10 children, though the names and order of these children are questions for debate:

  • Constantine. Named a Caesar in 615. Died young.
  • Fabius, who had a paralyzed neck. Died young.
  • Theodosios, who was a deaf-mute, married Nike, daughter of Persian general Shahrbaraz.
  • Heracleonas, Emperor 638 – 641.
  • David (Tiberios) (born on 7 November, 630),proclaimed Caesar in 638. He was briefly proclaimed Augustus and co-emperor with Heraklonas and Constans in 641. Deposed, mutilated and exiled to Rhodes.
  • Marinus. A Caesar. Died after being circumscised according to John of Nikiu.
  • Augoustina. Proclaimed an Augusta in 638.
  • Anastasia and/or Martina. Proclaimed Augusta in 638.
  • Febronia.

Of these at least two were handicapped, which was seen as punishment for the illegality of the marriage.

References

External links

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