The Marbled Cat is closely related to the Asiatic Golden Cats (Catopuma). It has two generally recognised subspecies, P. marmorata marmorata and P. m. charltoni.
The range of the Marbled Cat extends from Assam in northeast India, with the P. m. chartoni subspecies in Nepal, through southeast Asia including Borneo and Sumatra, which were linked to the mainland of Asia during the Pleistocene ice ages. It is probable that the forest canopies provide the Marbled Cat with much of its prey: birds, squirrels, other rodents and reptiles; there are reports that the cat also hunts on the ground in parts of its range. It is rarely sighted in its densely forested habitat, and little studied or understood. Its population is estimated at below 10,000 mature individuals. Its forested habitats have been shrinking, accounting for its vulnerable listing in IUCN.