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Mansur, al-

Mansur, al-

Mansur, al- [Arab.,=the victorious], d. 775, 2d Abbasid caliph (754-75) and founder of the city of Baghdad. His name was in full Abu Jafar abd-Allah al-Mansur. He was brother and successor of Abu al-Abbas. A vigorous and dominating caliph, he successfully consolidated his empire even though it was threatened by internal strife and foreign wars. He could not prevent the secession of Muslim Spain, however, under the Umayyad prince Abd ar-Rahman I. Mansur lived at first, as his brother had, near Kufa, but in 762 he began to build a new city, Baghdad.
Mansur, al- (Muhammad ibn Abi-Amir al-Mansur billah), 914-1002, Moorish regent of Córdoba, known in Spanish as Almanzor. He became steward to Princess Subh, wife of the caliph Hakim II, and under her patronage and by clever manipulation he rose to become (978) royal chamberlain for Hakim's successor, the young Hisham II. Al-Mansur kept Hisham in seclusion at his court and assumed complete control over the caliphate. A great warrior, he reorganized the army and undertook many campaigns against the Christian states of N Spain; he sacked Barcelona (985), razed the city of León (988), and destroyed the church and shrine of St. James at Santiago de Compostela (998). Before he died he appointed one of his sons as his successor.
Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Mahmud Abu Mansur al-Samarqandi al-Maturidi al-Hanafi (Arabic: محمد بن محمد بن محمود أبو منصور الماتريدي السمرقندي الحنفي, Turkish: Ebu Mansur el-Matüridî) (d. 333 AH / 944 CE) was a Muslim theologian.

Born in Maturid near Samarqand, he was educated in Muslim theology and juristic sciences.

His Teachers were Abu Nasr Ahmed b. Abbas b. Husayin al-Iyazi, Abu Bakr Ahmed b. Ishak b. Salih el-Juzjani (writer from Al-Farq wat Tamyiz),Nusayr b. Yahya al-Balkhi and Qadilqudat Muhammad b. Mukatil ar-Razi.

Abu Nasr al-Iyazi was his Teacher and Friend. Abu Bakr al-Juzjani was the pupil of Abu Sulayman Musa b. Sulayman el-Juzjani which was the pupil of Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad Ash-Shaybani. Muhammad b. Mukatil did learn from Imam Muhammad as-Shaybani too.

Abu Mansur al-Maturidi wrote mostly against other sects, mainly Mu'tazilis, Qarmati, and Shi'a.

His theology is almost identical to that of Ash'aris. His followers are chiefly those of areas where the Hanafi school of law is prevalent, such as Turkey, Afghanistan, Central Asia, Pakistan and India.

Works

  • Kitab Al Tawhid ('Book of Monotheism')
  • Kitab Radd Awa'il al-Adilla, a refutation of a Mu'tazili book
  • Radd al-Tahdhib fi al-Jadal, another refutation of a Mu'tazili book
  • Kitab Bayan Awham al-Mu'tazila ('Book of Exposition of the Errors of Mu'tazila)
  • Kitab Ta'wilat al-Qur'an ('Book of the Interpretations of the Quran')
  • Kitab al-Maqalat
  • Ma'akhidh al-Shara'i` in Usul al-Fiqh
  • Al-Jadal fi Usul al-Fiqh
  • Radd al-Usul al-Khamsa, a refutation of Abu Muhammad al-Bahili's exposition of the Five Principles of the Mu'tazila
  • Radd al-Imama, a refutation of the Shi`i conception of the office of Imam;
  • Al-Radd `ala Usul al-Qaramita
  • Radd Wa`id al-Fussaq, a refutation of the Mu`tazili doctrine that all grave sinners will be eternally in hell fire.

See also

External links

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