Definitions

Man

Man

[man]
Man, town (1996 est. pop. 112,600), W central Côte d'Ivoire, at the foot of the Toura Mts. It is an administrative and commercial center for a region producing coffee, cacao, kola nuts, rice, and cassava. Iron ore, bauxite, copper, and gold are mined nearby.
Man, Isle of, island and dependency of the British crown (2005 est. pop. 75,000), 227 sq mi (588 sq km), off Great Britain, in the Irish Sea. The coast is rocky with precipitous cliffs; the Calf of Man is a detached rocky islet off the southwest coast. The island's towns include Douglas (the capital), Peel, Ramsey, and Castletown. The rounded hills in the center of the island rise to 2,034 ft (620 m) at Snaefell. The beautiful scenery and extremely mild climate (subtropical plants are grown without protection) make the island a popular resort. The people are mainly of Manx (Norse-Celtic) and British descent, Christian (Anglican, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Baptist, and other denominations), and speak English and Manx Gaelic.

The economy relies on offshore banking, financial services, high-tech manufacturing, and tourism. Agriculture and fishing, once the economic mainstays, have declined. Nonetheless, oats, barley, turnips, and potatoes are grown, and cattle, sheep, pigs, and poultry are raised. Dairying and fishing remain somewhat important, and Manx tweeds are made from local wool.

The monarch of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, represented by the lieutenant governor, is the head of state. The government is headed by the chief minister, who is elected by the legislature. The Isle of Man's bicameral legislature, the Tynewald, consists of the 11-seat Legislative Council, whose members are appointed, and the 24-seat House of Keys, whose members are popularly elected for five-year terms. The Tynewald is the world's oldest continuous legislative assembly

Traces of occupants of the isle from Neolithic times exist. Of interest are ancient crosses and other stone monuments, a round tower, an old fort, and castles. Occupied by Vikings in the 9th cent., the island was a dependency of Norway until 1266, when it passed to Scotland. From the 14th to the 18th cent. (except for brief periods when it reverted to the English crown) it belonged to the earls of Salisbury and of Derby. Since 1765, when Parliament purchased it from the Duke of Atholl, the isle has been a dependency of the crown, but it is not subject to acts of the British Parliament.

man, prehistoric, or early man: see human evolution.
Ray, Man, 1890-1976, American photographer, painter, and sculptor, b. Philadelphia. Along with Marcel Duchamp, Ray was a founder of the Dada movement in New York and Paris. He is celebrated for his later surrealist paintings and photography. Among his inventions is the rayograph, a photograph obtained by the direct application of objects of varying opacity to a light-sensitive plate. His works include the painting The Rope Dancer Accompanies Herself with Her Shadows and the enigmatic sculpture Gift (both: Mus. of Modern Art, New York City). Ray also made several surrealist films, of which L'Étoile de Mer (1928) is the best known.

See his autobiography (1963). See also studies by N. Baldwin (1988), M. Foresta (1988), and R. Penrose (1989); Man Ray Fautographe (CD-ROM, 1996).

is the oldest existing collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods. The anthology is one of the most revered of Japan's poetic compilations. The compiler, or the final in a series of compilers, is believed to be Ōtomo no Yakamochi. The collection contains poems ranging from 347 (#85-89) through 759 (#4516) , with the bulk of them representing the period between 600 and 759.

The collection is divided into twenty parts or books, mirroring a similar practice in collections of Chinese poems of the time; this number was followed in most later collections. Unlike later collections, however, the parts of the Man'yōshū are not organized into topics or ordered chronologically. The collection contains 265 chōka (long poems), 4,207 tanka (short poems), one tanrenga (short connecting poem), one bussokusekika (poems on the Buddha's footprints at Yakushi-ji in Nara), four kanshi (Chinese poems), and 22 Chinese prose passages. There is no preface: the format of prefacing official collections, such as the Kokin Wakashū, developed later.

It is standard to regard the Man'yōshū as a particularly Japanese work. This does not mean that the poems and passages of the collection differed starkly from the scholarly standard (in Yakamochi's time) of Chinese literature and poetics. Certainly many entries of the Man'yōshū have a continental tone, earlier poems having Confucian or Taoist themes and later poems reflecting on Buddhist teachings. Yet, the Man'yōshū is singular, even in comparison with later works, in choosing primarily Yamato themes, extolling Shintō virtues of and . In addition, the language of many entries of the Man'yōshū exerts a powerful sentimental appeal to readers:

[T]his early collection has something of the freshness of dawn. [...] There are irregularities not tolerated later, such as hypometric lines; there are evocative place names and []; and there are evocative exclamations such as kamo, whose appeal is genuine even if incommunicable. In other words, the collection contains the appeal of an art at its pristine source with a romantic sense of venerable age and therefore of an ideal order since lost.

The collection is customarily divided into four periods. The earliest dates to prehistoric or legendary pasts, from the time of Yūryaku (r.?456–?479) to those of the little documented Yōmei (r.585–587), Saimei (r.594–661), and finally Tenji (r.668–671) during the Taika Reforms and the time of Fujiwara no Kamatari (614–669). The second period covers the end of the seventh century, coinciding with the popularity of Kakinomoto no Hitomaro, one of Japan's greatest poets. The third period spans 700–c.730 and covers the works of such poets as Yamabe no Akahito, Ōtomo no Tabito and Yamanoue no Okura. Akahito chiefly among them is resolutely Japanese; the rest freely incorporate and adapt Continental elements. The fourth period spans 730–760 and includes the work of the last great poet of this collection, the compiler Ōtomo no Yakamochi himself, who not only wrote many original poems but also edited, updated and refashioned an unknown number of ancient poems.

In addition to its artistic merits, the Man'yōshū is important for using one of the earliest Japanese writing systems, the cumbersome man'yōgana. Though it was not the first use of this writing system, which was also used in the earlier Kojiki (712), it was influential enough to give the writing system its name: "the kana of the Man'yōshū". This system uses Chinese characters in a variety of functions: their usual ideographic or logographic senses; to represent Japanese syllables phonetically; and sometimes in a combination of these functions. The use of Chinese characters to represent Japanese syllables was in fact the genesis of the modern syllabic kana writing systems, being simplified forms (hiragana) or fragments (katakana) of the man'yōgana.

Julius Klaproth was the first to publish any translation of Taika era Japanese poetry in the West. Donald Keene explained in a preface to the Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkōkai edition of the Man'yōshū:

"One 'envoy' (hanka) to a long poem was translated as early as 1834 by the celebrated German orientalist Heinrich Julius Klaproth (1783-1835). Klaproth, having journeyed to Siberia in pursuit of strange languages, encountered some Japanese castaways, fisherman, hardly ideal mentors for the study of 8th century poetry. Not surprisingly, his translation was anything but accurate.

The Man'yōshū has been accepted in the Japanese Translation Series of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

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