A mountain range (the highest point of which is Gunong Tahan, 7,186 ft/2,190 m, in Malaysia) forms the backbone of the peninsula; from it numerous short, swift rivers flow east and west. More than half of the land surface is covered with tropical rain forest; the only open areas, aside from clearings made for settlement and agriculture, are the alluvial plains of the west-central portion of the peninsula and stretches along the rivers. The region is one of the richest of the world in the production of tin and rubber; other products include timber, copra and coconut oil, palm oil, tapioca, peanuts, pineapples, and bananas. Rice is the chief foodstuff.
The Malays, historically the dominant cultural group, probably came originally from S China (c.2,000 B.C.), but marriages with other peoples have modified their ethnic characteristics. The Chinese are now nearly as numerous as the Malays; Indians and Thais form important minority groups. Small tribes of aborigines, descendants of pre-Malay immigrants, are found in the hills and jungles.
The Malay Peninsula was visited near the beginning of the Christian era by traders from India and in the succeeding centuries received, like Indonesia and Indochina, Buddhist and Brahman missionaries and Hindu colonists. Small Hinduized states sprang up, like Langkasuka in the area of modern Kedah. In the second half of the 8th cent. the peninsula fell under the domination of the Sailendra rulers of Sri Vijaya (from Sumatra), who adopted Mahayana Buddhism. Their cities in Kedah and Pattani rivaled the importance of their capital at Palembang.
The peninsula was overrun in the 11th cent. by the Cholas from the Coromandel Coast of India; after about 50 years, the Sailendras, somewhat weakened, resumed their sway. Sailendra rule ended in the late 13th cent., when Sumatra and some southern areas of the Malay Peninsula fell to a Javan invasion and when the Thai king of Sukhothai swept over the peninsula from the north. The Sumatran kingdom of Melayu next ruled over the south of the peninsula, to be followed in turn (late 14th cent.) by Madjapahit, which was the last Hindu empire of Java, and by the Thai king of Ayutthaya. The fall of Madjapahit opened the way for the primacy of a Malay state, Malacca (see Melaka). In the 15th cent., the Malays, beginning with the Malaccans, were converted to Islam (which remains the religion of most Malays).
The 16th cent. brought the first Europeans. The Portuguese seized Malacca (1511), and soon afterward Dutch traders appeared in Malayan waters. Malacca fell to the Dutch in 1641. The important British role on the peninsula began with the founding of settlements at Pinang (1786) and Singapore (1819). The coming of the Portuguese had plunged the peninsula into anarchy. The last sultan of Malacca, in flight from the Portuguese, founded a kingdom based on the Riau Archipelago and Johor, but the rulers of the petty states in the south gradually achieved independence, while the rising power of Siam and an increasingly imperial Britain became rivals. The British established protectorates over several Malay states, and in 1909 the boundary between Siam and Malaya was fixed by Siam's transfer to Great Britain of suzerainty over Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, and Terengganu.
The Malay Peninsula or Thai-Malay Peninsula (Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) (คาบสมุทรมลายู) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. It is also known as the Kra Peninsula and runs approximately north-south through the Kra Isthmus.
The coastal waters are (clockwise from northeast) the Gulf of Thailand, the South China Sea (opposite Borneo), the Straits of Johor (opposite Singapore), the Straits of Singapore (along Singapore's western coasts), the Straits of Malacca (opposite Sumatra) and the Andaman Sea.
The area is divided politically:
The Malay term Tanah Melayu is still occasionally used in political discourse to describe uniting all Malay people on the peninsula under one Malay nation, although this ambition was largely realized with the creation of Malaysia. There however remains a Malay majority in southern Thailand, as the area was formerly part of the Pattani kingdom, a Malay kingdom. There is also a Malay minority in Singapore, an island country with a Chinese majority that came to the island as immigrants during the British colonial era and began to develop into a major city when the British leased the island from the Sultanate of Johor in 1819.
The west coast of the peninsula was especially popular among seafaring Bugis, Chinese and Indians as a stopover, leading to increased migration of the people to set up visible coastal settlements in the thirteenth century.
The Malay Peninsula may have been the peninsula recorded as Chersonesus Aurea in Roman times.