Malate dehydrogenase is also involved in gluconeogenesis, the synthesis of glucose from smaller molecules. Pyruvate in the mitochondria is acted upon by pyruvate carboxylase to form oxaloacetate, a citric acid cycle intermediate. In order to get the oxaloacetate out of the mitochondria, malate dehydrogenase reduces it to malate, and it then traverses the inner mitochondrial membrane. Once in the cytosol, the malate is oxidized back to oxaloacetate by cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. Finally, phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxy kinase (PEPCK) converts oxaloacetate to phosphoenol pyruvate.
The Cas number for this type of the enzyme is [9001-64-3].