Malang

Malang

[mah-lahng]

Malang is the second largest city in East Java province, Indonesia and will be established as the fourth largest city in Indonesia in 2008. It has an ancient history dating back to the Mataram Kingdom. The city population at the present time is around 1.5 million, and the population of the urban area is 2 million. The total population is therefore around 3.5 million. During the period of Dutch colonization, it was a popular destination for European residents. The city is famous for its cool air and the surrounding country regions of Tumpang, Batu, Singosari, and Turen. People in East Java sometimes call it "Paris van East Java." Malang was spared many of the effects of the Asian financial crisis, and since that time it has been marked by steady economic and population growth.

History

Hundreds, even thousands of years ago before Malang became the second biggest city in East Java, Malang used to be the centre of government of the Kanjuruhan and Singhasari Kingdom. In the following era, Malang regency became an important place when the government of Mataram Kingdom took hold of the area, making it the largest regency in East Java and since then the development of Malang regency has increased well.

The history of Malang Regency could be revealed through the Dinoyo inscription 760 AD as the primary official document to support the birth of Malang before a new inscription was discovered in 1986, which is so far not yet revealed. According to the inscription, it was concluded that the 8th century was the beginning of the existence of Malang Regency's government due to the birth of King Gajayana's ruling of his kingdom in Malang. From the Dinoyo inscriptions, it is noted that the inscription used the "Candra Sengkala" or "Cronogram" Calendar, and stated that the birth date of Malang Regency was on Jum'at Legi (sweet Friday) November 28, 760 AD. (L. Damaes: "Studed' Epigraphy d'Indonesia IV. 1952").

The city was incorporated into Mataram in 1614, then transferred to Dutch colonial rule. Malang was transformed under the Dutch; its cool climate which results from its elevation, along with its proximity to the major port of Surabaya, made it a popular destination for Dutch and other Europeans. In 1879, Malang was connected to Java's railroad network, further increasing development and leading to increased industrialization.

Along with growth came urbanization. The government could not satisfy the population’s needs for affordable housing, which lead to the building of shanty towns along the rivers and rail tracks. Up until today, the shanty towns still exist; although some have been transformed into “better” housing.

Geography

Malang has a total area of 252,136 km². It shares its borders with Pasuruan (North), Lumajang (East), and Batu (West). Mount Bromo, one of Java's largest volcanoes and a major tourist attraction, is located just to the east of the city.

Demographics

There are roughly 1,175,282 people living in Malang. The population density is 10,000 – 17,000/km², with population growth of 9.3% per year.

Ethnic backgrounds

The racial makeup of the city is mainly of Javanese and Madura, with a small percentage of the Arabic and Chinese descendants. The people of Malang are known for their spirituality, dynamism, hard-work and particularly proud to be Arek Malang (AREMA).

Religion

Like most of Java, a large majority of Malang residents are Muslim; there are small minorities of Catholics, Hindus, and Buddhists. Many of buildings of worship still stand from their construction in the colonial era. For example, Jami Mosque (or Agung Mosque), Sacred Heart Church (Gereja Hati Kudus Yesus) in Kayutangan, Saint Therese Cathedral (Gereja Ijen or Katedral Santa Theresia) in Ijen Street, seat fo the Roman Catholic Diocese of Malang, Eng An Kiong Buddhist Temple in Laksamana Martadinata Street. Malang is also famous for being the centre of religious education, this is evident with the existence of many Islamic schools (pesantren) and bible seminars.

Language

Javanese and Madura language is the day-to-day language used by Malang people. Many of the native Malang youths adopt a dialect that is called 'boso walikan', it is simply done by reversing the pronunciation of the words, an example of this is by pronouncing “Malang” as “Ngalam” instead.

Art & Culture

As a centre of tourism, Malang has various places of interest which can be classified into local, regional, national and international standards, including traditional dance performances such as Tari Topeng (Mask Dance), Jaran Pegon, Tari Beskalan (Beskalan Dance), etc. There are also 'Topeng' or Mask handicraft at the villages of Jabung and Kedungmonggo which have become a familiar landmark in Malang Regency.

Malang is also home to a thriving transgender (waria) community headed by Miss Waria Indonesia 2006, Merlyn Sopjan.

Non-residents

Temporary residents to Malang are mostly for educational reasons. They come from other islands especially from East of Indonesia, which includes Bali, Nusa Tenggara, East Timor, Papua, Maluku, Sulawesi and Kalimantan.

Education

Malang is well-known as "Education City" which means there are many top schools there, e.g. SMUK Kolese Santo Yusup, SMAK St. Albertus, SMAN 1, and SMAN 3. Currently there are hundreds of students from other parts of Indonesia studying there.

Sidoarjo mud flow

On 28 May 2006, a blow-out occurred during a drilling for an exploration of Natural Gas. The blow-out initially produced 5000 m³ of mud flow per day. 18 months after the incident, the mud flow is estimated to be 80,000 m³ to 100,000 m³ per day. This ongoing mud flow has forced the closure of the Porong-Gempol toll road in East Java, which effectively cut off the transport line from Surabaya to Malang.

References

External links

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