Mahón (alternately, Maó in Catalan), is a municipality and the capital city of the Balearic Island of Minorca (the Balearic Islands form an autonomous Spanish community), located in the eastern part of the island. Mahon has the second deepest natural port in the world, 5km long and up to 900m wide. The water is deep but it remains very clear.
Mahon was captured in 1287 from the Moors by Alfonso III of Aragon and incorporated into the Kingdom of Majorca, a vassal kingdom of the Kingdom of Aragon. Its harbour, one of the most strategically important in the western Mediterranean, was re-fortified.
Minorca was captured by the British during the War of the Spanish Succession in 1707, and its status as a British possession was confirmed by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. During the island's years as a British dependency in the 18th century, Mahon served as its capital and residence for the governor, the most famous being General Richard Kane (references to General Kane as "Sir" are erroneous; he was never knighted ).
Today it serves as the seat of the Island Council of Minorca (Consell Insular de Menorca).
Towards the end of the 20th century, a refurbishment of its historic centre was made possible by income from tourism.
A traditional cheese made on the island (Queso de Mahón) is named after the city. Mayonnaise is argued to have its origin and name in this Minorcan city. In Spanish mahón is also the name of nankeen, especially the blue cloth.
Related to this, there is controversy around the correct official toponomy: (Maó) is the proper form according to Catalan orthography and approved by local, regional and national government, but (Mahón), is preferred by some conservatist sectors. Some also prefer the old Catalan spelling (Mahó). The Catalan is itself subject to regional sub-dialects, with each of the Balearic islands having its own variations.