magneto thermoelectricity

Magneto-ionic double refraction

In telecommunication, magneto-ionic double refraction is the combined effect of the Earth's magnetic field and atmospheric ionization, whereby a linearly polarized wave entering the ionosphere is split into two components called the ordinary wave and the extraordinary wave.

Note: The component waves follow different paths, experience different attenuations, have different phase velocities, and, in general, are elliptically polarized in opposite senses.

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